Monday, December 31, 2018


Adrian Corona Speech ci Pele- Informative Speech Introduction 1. trouble Getter- My father always told me, footb exclusively is a gift from god, and god gave you this gift, just how he gives a song to a musician, or a singer. So you expect to squeeze c atomic number 18 of your health, how you prepare yourself, and you always have to respect your opp peerlessnts, and if you do t put on you forget be a great recreateer and no 1 go fall out stop you. This is one famous quote from Peles take hold My life, and The Beautiful Game. 2.Brief Intro- Edison Arantes do Nascimento, more(prenominal) know as Pele was one of, if not the superlative footb every player in the mankind. He was born(p) on October 23, 1940 in Tres Coracoes, Brazil. At scarce 15, he began to play professional football, and do a huge impact in his team, as strong as the internal team. Even though Edison was his real name, Pele caught on because it means a miracle in Hebrew. He did not same(p) it at fi rst, but got use to it. He is regarded by more other(a)(prenominal) players and fans as the best footballer of all time. 3. Thesis- immediately I will dress down on behalf how and why Pele is known as the worlds best footballer 4.Preview Statement- First I will speech virtually Peles youth career, adjacent I will blather on behalf of his career stats, and highs, and finally I will talk on how Pele impacted the venture in galore(postnominal) ways. Body 1. primary(prenominal) header 1- Peles Youth charge A. Pele was first spotted by another football star named Waldemar de Brito. He k bracing from the base that he had an indescribable talent, and had to be sign-language(a) right away. So Pele began playing for Santos at 15 and his national team at 16, and won his first world form at 17. a. Even though he had some offer from European clubs, he could not leave Brazil because of the law.He charge was declared a national esteem in 1961 by President Janio Quadros of Br azil. b. This make him stay in Santos for almost cardinal decades, but brought much success to the team, as well as for him. (Which I will get into later) c. It seems as if Edison was born with a football. I remember that even forwards he could walk, he would have a ball with him, and once he could, well that was that. You would always see him playing with his small fri curios, and what kept him going was not save the love of the plot, but looking up to his father, says his mother in his take My lifetime and the Beautiful Game. Transitional statement- like a shot I will move on to Peles many career stats, and all time career highs. Main Point 2- Pele Career Stats and Highs A. documentation Point- At the end of his career, Pele was known as The Black drop, or The King Pele. This name caught on for many reasons. a. Pele was known for his accomplishments and contributions to the game of football. b. For one, Pele has many awards and records. Some of them are c. In 1999, he wa s voted Player of the Century by the outside(a) Federation of football.In that same year Pele was elected Athlete of the Century by the worldwide Olympic Committee and Reuters freshlys Agency. d. He was the best well paid athletic supporter of the world for his time. e. He is the most undefeated league scorer in the world with 541 league goals. In total, he scored 1281 in 1363 stopes. f. Won the world cup 3 times (World Record 1958,1962, 1970) g. Won many titles with Santos, much(prenominal) as the Copa Libertadores, Intercontinental Cup. (Both in 1962, 1963), Supercopa de Campeones Internacionales (1968), and many, many more. These accomplishments are with Santos only, not the Cosmos) h. He was as well one of the best players in the world cups he participated in, receiving the fluent Boot, Silver Ball, and Golden Ball. As well as the all time leading scorer with 77 goals in the national team. i. With a record high of 40 appointed titles, and a few more runner up titles , Pele without a doubt was considered as the greatest footballer of all time. j. Pele is also acknowledgeable for his vocal support of policies to better conditions for the poor. He even dedicated his thousandth goal to the poor children of Brazil. . Even afterward retirement, Pele was still around serving as a worldwide ambassador and has taken many roles for participating in FIFA events such as promotions for the world cup. Transitional Statement- later on getting some idea of his many accomplishments, I will finally talk about the ways Pele changed the game of Football forever. Main Point 3- The change Pele brought to Football. A. Supporting Point- Pele brought many new ways to play football. a. For one, he was one of the first to do actual tricks in a match of football.For example a top hat in his first world cup. No other team has ever seen something like this. b. Pele also set many new standards for the game. He set many records that passel still try to break to this day. c. He also made other players sieve to rifle as successful as he did. Made, and encouraged many players to become more than just a slap-up player that they already are. d. He was one of the reasons why the prices in the contracts of footballers went up because when more than one team will wish well for the same player, they added more money too it. e.And according to the New York Times, Pele is seen as an all rounded player, being the player that he was, and being committed to helping out his country, which makes him almost unreachable by other footballers. Now I will finish my topic of The one and only Pele Conclusion- A. Pele is seen as the worlds best footballer. B. Today I have informed you about Edison, or more known as Pele, and his youth career, career stats and highs, and how he changed the game forever. C. Even though there are many great footballers like Maradonna, Hugo Sanchez, Ronaldihno, and many others, no one has compared to The King, Pele.Works Cited Page 1. Fi sh, Robert L. Pele My Life and the Beautiful Game The Autobiography of Pele. capital of the United Kingdom New English Library, 1978. Print. 2. A memorial of Pele. A Biography of Pele. Www. latinosportslegends. com, Apr. -May 2001. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. <http//www. latinosportslegends. com/Pele_bio. htm>. 3. Cooper, Ben. Soccers Superlative. Soccers Superlative. New York Times, 04 June 1975. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. <http//select. nytimes. com/gst/abstract. html? res=9B0CE5DF1339E63BBC4C53DFB066838E669EDE>.

Sunday, December 30, 2018

Life Sentence, Cruel and Unusual Punishment?

Teenagers atomic number 18 continuously committing petty nuisances, and some argon more than fracture then other(a)s. Most of the cadence when novels are charged for crimes, they are displace to Juvenile H on the whole. exactly what if the crime requires more com/capital-punishment-and-sensitive-societal-issue/punishment than that? Some teenagers are committing crimes so sever that theyre being tried as adults and fortune look in prison house without parole. The dogmatic Court is now considering whether this denounce constitutes untamed and unusual punishment. Teenagers are of all time doing something illegal because maybe they think its chill out or theyre not thought properly or whatever itll be.But no matter how extensive the crime, teens shouldnt be impris unrivalledd their whole lives because of one stupid decision or flaw they made at 15 historic period old. Hopefully some people modernise up and out of their old slip authority and they regret what they ha d done. But, unfortunately, thats not enough. Joe Sullivan. 13 years old. Convicted in 1989 for sexually assaulting a 72-year-old woman. Now at 34, Joe is asking the Supreme Court to decide whether his sentence violates the characters Eighth Amendment ban on cruel and unusual punishment.Joe Sullivan is regain in Florida the state holding the highest emergence of non-homicidal juvenile lifers 77. Joes crime is cruel and unusual but others could and are way worse. According to the reports from the Equal Justice Initiatives, further 8 people in the world, all in the United States, are serving crimes they pull at 13. Prompted by a quick rise in juvenile crimes in the 1990s, Florida and other states have interpreted a get-tough approach. Which made the punishment more more sever for their crimes. Rebecca Falcon. 5 years old. Convicted on November 19th, 1997 for shooting and killing a hacker driver. That night Rebecca was upset everywhere an ex-boyfriend and because of that, she drank a large amount of whiskey. afterward on, she and an 18-year-old friend hopped in a cab and within minutes the driver was dead. To this day, the accelerator pedal wasnt identified, however the gun belonged to her friend. both had consecrate the blame on individually other. Now Rebecca is 27 and highly declination her decisions from night. Some people do rise over time and not everyone deserves to be entenced for life for a crime they committed as teenagers. 2,500 prisoners in the United States are serving life imprisonment for crimes they did as juveniles. 109 people were sentenced for life for crimes that didnt incriminate a homicide. Besides Sullivans case, in that location have been only one other case involving teenagers locked away for rape. But the suspense is, is it right? Obviously putting them in Juvenile Hall will do nothing seeing how they committed the crime a year or dickens before they would get out if they were put there.But at the same time, life in pri son might not be the best thing either. displace a 13-year-old in jail and coitus them theyll be there for the rest of their lives is roughly overwhelming. Young teens are more nonresistant to peer pressure and easily break off the straight and narrow by the environment around them. Jail is view to serve two purposes Punishment and rehabilitation. However, if teens are being sent to life without parole, theyre only getting the punishment. Not everyone should be giving parole but no one should be denied a play at another life.

Friday, December 28, 2018

How foragers and horticulturalists allocate land and labor Essay

Lets start emerge with a basic question whose dissolving agent may jazz as a surprise. What is cordialisation and when did it begin? kitchen-gardening is the multi- genesisal hard-drive of memory, change, and innovation. Culture transforms a record of the past into a prediction of the future it transforms memory into usageinto rules of how to proceed. And finish is profoundly social. It exists not effective in one mind, but binds in concert mobs of minds in a common enterprise. When did culture frontmost appear in this 13.7 billion-year-old world?The answers are surprising. Most evolutionary experts swan that humanity culture kicked off 45,000 to 35,000 eld ago. Paleontologists studying pre-historic Europe call this arrest The Cultural Explosion. 45,000 to 35,000 years ago, men and women began to perforate, grind, polish, and course session bone, ivory, antler, shell and stone into harpoons, fish hooks, buttons, ornaments, sew needles, and awls. Frosting the cake, serviceman invented musical instruments, calendars mark on pieces of antler, and paintings on the walls of caves.Then on that points the un-standard answer about cultures beginnings, a rebel timeline of human culture that a relatively bare-ass pale anthropological school is armed combat for. This new scientific movement has do its digs in Africa, not Europe, and has come up with radically distinguishable dates. Culture, says this upstart school, started approximately 280,000 years ago when humans invented the makeup industry, thus followed that up with the wile of jewelry, beads, and trade. Culture is transmitted from one generation to generation and is learned mainly in childhood and during maturation. We learn not whole our behavior but also our attitudes and values.The might to acquire culture in this guidance makes humans highly adaptable to different cultural environments. We has humans are natural with potential to learn whatever cognition and skills are practices in are communities. When did some other ingredient of culture social memory, a memory that gives a foundation of k directlyledge, perception, and flush to an entire society firstborn scrape?A firm answer is much elusive than you might think. Why? For the first 300,000 years after the Big Bang, the public was host to a push-down listive social dance. Particle gangs moved at top-notch speed, colliding with each other like bullets smashing head to head, then bouncing onward with ferocious velocity. Astonishingly, the particles involvedparticularly the protonscame out of each crash with all their mass and form intact. Was this act of identity-retention a natural form of memory? Was it tradition arisen ahead its time?The study examines decision of spirit class of U.S. and highland Mayan parents regarding respiteing arrangements during the first two years the infants sleep with their sire up until thither a toddler. exactly in the U.S. infants only sleep in the bed with th eir mother every now and then. This is how Mayan explains the closeness of their infants. When we put infant in a room by themselves then this making them impendent to be able to sleep on there on. Mayan families use there bedtimes as a routines and objects to facilitate transmutation to sleep. Rites of passage are a household of rituals that mark the passage of a individual through the life cycle, from one show to another over time, from one voice or social position to another, combine the human and cultural experiences with biological dowry birth, reproduction, and death.These ceremonies make the basic distinctions, observed in all groups, mingled with young and old, anthropoid and female, living and dead. The interplay of biology and culture is at the heart of all rites of passage, and the struggle between these two spheres asserts the essential paradox of our soul heritage. As humans, we dwell in an ambiguous world, for we belong to both nature and elongation pageCul tural Anthropology (Bonvillain)Cultural rendering in Infants sleeping ArrangementsDevelopment psychological science 1992 Vol 4 604-613

Thursday, December 27, 2018

'No Good Reasons To Believe in Dualism Essay\r'

'Are in that location any good reasons to trust in dualism?\r\nDualism, the philosophical opening that states that there be two kinds of substance: amiable and corporal, is instanter largely discredited by the creation’s leading philosophers.\r\nIt first came to blow through Ren� Descartes in his Meditations as he tried to come to terms with the item that most of his fellowship was either dishonorable or that he did not nourish enough evidence to cerebrate in it firmly enough. For many centuries the idea was debated and reclassified, ever-changing slightly from philosopher to philosopher and be all in all spurned by others. The alternative to dualism is monism, the idea that psychical and bodily substances are ace and the kindred; that is that the mind is or is contained deep down (in the waver of), the understanding.\r\nAt first it appeared that dualism was thence a crystalline thoughtion, as features of the mind and the ashes seemed ve ry different indeed. Descartes pointed out that objet dart one could imagine oneself without physical features, it was unsufferable to imagine oneself without a mind; indeed the very action of attempting this was enough to kindle that a mind was present. This was the basis of Descartes’ speculation to draw out basic tell apartledge that he could not be deceived about. payable to this perspicuousion it seemed lucid to conclude, using Leibniz’s Law, that physical and psychological entities were indeed give. However, Descartes had demand a mistake in assumptive that his clear and distinct sciences of a affair made that thing possible.\r\nFor example, I stinker clearly and distinctly see of a unicorn, muchover that does not imply that they outlast. (Lewis Carroll parodied this in Through the Looking Glass, in which the rubor Queen tells Alice she imagines several impossible things beforehand breakfast. Presumably she has a clear and distinct perceptio n of these things, as when Alice attempts it, she is told she is not act hard enough.) Also, I evoke honourable as clearly perceive of nearlything not being as of it being, and as something cannot both(prenominal) be and not be, it would seem that this surmisal for basing something upon an unalterable internal proposition waterfall down. So, the communication channel from clear and distinct perception cannot be physical exercised here as it is just as easy to conceive of the mind and body being go bad as it is for them to be one and the same(p).\r\nthither are many scientific and logical arguments in favour of monism, Occam’s Razor, for example, a theory which asks us to take the simpler solvent to a problem everyplace the to a greater extent complicated theory. For example, before the biology of animals was worked out scientifically, it was believed that all living creatures had an attribute called vitalism, which unploughed it alive. Now we k now the biology, w e can use this much simpler explanation. Here it can be applied easily: obviously it is simpler to believe in one substance than two, one of which does not conform to the laws of physics.\r\nThere is excessively scientific evidence that shows us how change or experimenting with the adept, which is undeniably physical, can involve a person’s mental behaviour. Performing a lobotomy, for instance, can totally alter a person’s personality †turning them from being unagitated and rational to being crude and rash, or vice versa. Similarly, stimulating neurons on the Thingybob Strip, which crosses the extend of the brain, can cause sensations all over the body. It may be that prodding a part of this strip can make your elbow tingle in a most delightful manner or make your thumb feel as if it is being dragged through warm treacle. It would seem from this that the these feelings are to be found in the prodded part of the brain and this is where the mental is to be fou nd within the physical.\r\nThese reasons show that monism is belike the more scientifically favourable position, but are there any reasons that can show Dualism to be the more logical choice? Leibniz’s Law force argue for dualism in that there being differences between the physical and the mental, they must indeed be separate substances.\r\nFor example, having a clod of the physical removed does not mean a part of the mental has too been removed. In fact, an awful lot of the physical body can be harmed, even so in the brain, before there is a definite mental side effect. Surely, guess the dualists, if the some parts of the mental were contained within sealed parts of the brain, for example, if the capacity to seek lentils were located solely in a small part of the brain, and that part were to be removed we would no long-term cod the capacity to taste lentils. But a lot of the brain can be removed, and so, if there were set areas we would be removing legitimate ab ilities of the mental. Therefore, the mental must be separate from the physical.\r\nHowever, it is true that removing some areas of the brain get out prevent the mental from performing sealed capabilities. It is possible to find out which areas of the brain are functioning when fuelled by busy stimuli, and if, when doing this we slice out those areas of the brain, in some (but not all) cases, those functions will no longer be possible. Also, the left side of the brain and the right side provide immensely different functions †one being more practical and other being more intellectual. This would seem to back up the monist theory that the mind is located within certain parts of the brain.\r\nAnother counter argument to Dualism could be contained within Feigl’s concept of Nomological Danglers. If the mental is indeed distinct from the physical it cannot be present within the same valet de chambre as the physical things we know of, as removing physicals things would inev itably reveal the mental substance. Therefore it follows that it is connected to this physical world in some other way. However, Feigl tells us that it is ridiculous to believe that there is a separate type of law for these substances, which allows them to exist dependently of the rest of physics. Surely the mental substances cannot be ‘dangling’ outside of the realms of reality?\r\nThese slew of arguments for monism overwhelm the poorer, outdated arguments for dualism, which stem from a less scientifically advanced age, in which the solutions appeared to work logically, based on a more internal philosophy of contemplation, which is now being replaced by a more practical philosophy, backed up by the sciences.\r\nHence it is not unfair to adduce that previous ideas that worked in favour of dualism are no longer good reasons to believe the theory and that as we have advance reasons to take the theory of monism seriously, we must charter to it, and not dualism, as the correct theory.\r\n'

Wednesday, December 26, 2018

'Marketing Final Paper Essay\r'

'Yum! Brands is the earth’s king-sizest eatery association with oer 38,000 eating houses in ein truthplace one hundred ten countries and territories and to a greater extent than 1 cardinal associates. Yum Brands is as well as a attracter inside the quick redevelopment Restaurants (QSR) exertion in China, with everywhere 3,500 eating places in the region (i.e., Taiwan, Mainland China, and Thailand), more(prenominal) than 1,800 of which argon located in Mainland China.\r\nYum Brands ope pass judgment in the Food Service application, which progeny neer be replaced or eruptdated everyplace collectible to change magnitude technology or change magnitude competition. Consumers provide always need to dupe from the Food Service Industry. Growth and spending is guaranteed with extend of the humanity population and adenylic acidlification to special countries world wide.\r\nIn 2010, the fede symmetryn incr projecting its discharge income by 10% from $824 trillion in 2009 to $1.16 billion in 2010. Yum Brands passs to show ardent gross revenue, bread, and gain.\r\nYum Brands is the worldwide draw in multi brand nameing, which stretchs consumers more choice and contrivance at one eatery place from a combination of KFC, greaser toll, pizza pie shanty, A& group A;W or farsighted tin can silver gray’s brands.\r\nYum Brands also shows enormous embodied affable Responsibility in the assiduity. Yum! Ranked #337 come out of 500 on Newsweek’s 2010 cat valium Rankings U.S. list #62 on somatic fond Responsibility Magazine’s 100 Best Corporate Citizens numerate of 2010, #33 in 2009.\r\nYum Brands has cemented their products with unique bask differentiation by making their bonds the attractors in the industry. A& axerophthol;W is Root Beer and KFC is fried chicken. Yum Brands has present a strong dividing line design and corporate goals for competing in the global mart.\r\n penetration\r\nY um Brands holds a strong position as the number 2 familiarity in the Food Service Industry. The aliment Service Industry is a necessary industry that will non see great change due to innovation or a pertly competitor go into the market place. The market is strong and consistent base off consumer needs. The fast nourishment industry is cheap and equal effective, providing brilliant serve to consumers at the refinement(a) possible prices.\r\nYum Brands is the world’s massivest restaurant association with oer 38,000 restaurants in more than 110 countries and territories and everyplace 1 gazillion employees. This shows the size of Yum Brands, a global presence that will continue to increase\r\nYum Brands has also displayed global rail line and selling strategies. * Build leading brands crossways China in every crucial category * Drive aggressive world-wide elaborateness and build strong brands everyplace * Dramatic everyy improve U.S. brand positions, unan imity and returns * Drive industry-leading, long-term helpingholder and certifye c atomic number 18 for\r\nDavid C Novak has been CEO of Yum Brands (YUM) for 6 divisions. Mr. Novak has been with the caller-up for20 grades. The 53 year old administrator ranks 1 within Forbes rankings of in high spiritsest paid restaurant CEO’s.\r\nWhile virtually consumers atomic number 18 unaw ar of the p atomic number 18nt corporation, Yum Brands is silently pickings a more compulsory sh are of the global food industry. Its wholesome-kn birth(a) brands entangle pizza army hut, KFC, greaser-Bell, immense John funds’s and A& adenylic acid;W Restaurants.\r\nYum Brands continue to show festering that will put it on par with the leader in the Food Service Industry, McDonalds? disrespect having more localization principles than McDonalds, McDonalds annual revenue of $23.1 trillion dwarf Yum Brands at $11.3 Billion\r\nOverview of Yum Brands\r\nYum! was created on Octob er 7, 1997, as Tricon Global Restaurants, Inc. an independent company, as a result of a spin-outfrom PepsiCo, which possess and franchised the KFC, Pizza Hut, and Taco Bell brands worldwide. Because of the company’s previous relationship with Pepsi, Yum! Brands has a lifetime contract with PepsiCo, with nonable exceptions world the contract of A& vitamin A;W Restaurants with Dr Pepper Snapple Group to be the easy lay restaurant provider of A&W Root Beer.\r\nYum Brands is the world’s large(p)st restaurant company with over 37,000 restaurants in more than 110 countries and territories. in that location is credibly a Yum restaurant near you. Its well-known brands include Pizza Hut, KFC, Taco-Bell, Long John Silver’s and A&W Restaurants. t withdrawher are 14,001 stores outside(a)ly including 3,664 locations in China. Yum has 17,476 stores in the U.S. A center of 77% are owned by franchisees. The company implements practices and procedures to maintain a high level of help including Customer manic disorder Training and CHAMPS (which measures operational basics bid Cleanliness, Hospitality, Accuracy, Maintenance, harvest-feast Quality and Speed). A&W Restaurants, Inc., based in Louisville, Ky., is the drawn-out running fast(a) service franchise chain in America. Since 1919, A&W All-American Food has been parcel a signature frosty mug ascendent beer float and All-American pure- flush hamburgers and hot dogs.\r\nThere are over 600 A&W All American Food outlets in 13 countries and territories some the world and more or little 600 points of distribution at Yum! Brands multibrand restaurants. There are approximately 344 A&W All-American Food restaurants in the U.S. and more than 290 in 11 some oppositewise countries. KFC mess, based in Louisville, Ky., is the world’s most favourite chicken restaurant chain specializing in Original Recipe, Extra kinky and Colonel’s Crispy Strips with home-s tyle sides, Honey BBQ Wings, and freshly made chicken sandwiches. Since its founding by Colonel Harland Sanders in 1952, KFC has been serving customers delicious, already-prepared complete family meals at affordable prices.\r\nThere are over 12,000 KFC outlets in more than 102 countries and territories most the world serving some eight one one million million million million customers all(prenominal) day. Long John Silver’s, Inc. based in Louisville, Ky., is the world’s largest quick-service seafood chain, specializing in batter-dipped fish, chicken, shrimp and hushpuppies. Inspired by Robert Louis Stevenson’s classic Treasure Island, Long John Silver’s was founded in 1969. Today, there are more than 1,000 Long John Silver’s, Inc. restaurants worldwide, and over 350 additional points of distribution in multibrand restaurants.\r\nPizza Hut Inc., based in Dallas, Texas, is the world’s largest pizza restaurant company specializing in Pan P izza, Thin ‘N Crispy pizza, Hand-Tossed Style Pizza and Stuffed Crust Pizza. There are more than 6,100 restaurants in the get together States and more than 4,900 restaurants in over 92 countries and territories around the world. The company is the recognized leader in the pizza category. Taco Bell Corp. is the nation’s leading Mexican-style quick service restaurant chain serving tacos, burritos, signature Quesadillas, nachos and other specialty items. Taco Bell serves more than 35 million consumers each week in more than 5,100 restaurants in the U.S.\r\nMarketing Strategy\r\nProduct\r\nYum Brand is in the food service industry but they also sense of smell to market their restaurant custody, as individuals own 80% of Yum Brands restaurant chains. Yum Brands is the largest restaurant provider of chicken, tacos, fish, and pizza to the consumer market and they sell very recognizable products. In their marketing of products, Yum Brands focuses less on individual products and more on the brand as a whole. afterward conducting comprehensible market research, Yum Brands found that the absolute majority of people purchasing from one of their restaurants are not looking for a specific product. Yum Brands found that the majority of consumers choose Yum Brands because of their comfortable locations, low prices, and the tonus of food is high.\r\nKFC sells the most recognizable brand of chicken in the world, although they engage many competitors, none of their competitors withdraw as many locations or as much brand recognition as KFC. However, there construct been some large selling Items, which Yum Brands has chosen to market individually, much(prenominal) as the KFC 12 piece pail and Taco Bell’s infatuation Wrap Supreme. With large ticket items, Yum Brands has designed custom meal manages think around these items. Instead of simply offering chips and a drink or a biscuit, Yum Brands has focused on supersized meals and the marketing stra tegy of get the most for your money. They do this by supersizing the meals consumers get at a price increase that is both favorable to the consumer and beneficial to costs.\r\n bell\r\nThe goal of Yum Brands is to compete at the lowest price possible and they do this by owning distribution centers around the world and lordly the process that food comes into one of their restaurants, from the provoke to the customer. Because Yum Brands is the largest supplier of chicken, tacos, fish, and pizza to the market they have a competitive advantage over their competitors simply because they can instigate more product, therefrom they can provide bring low prices. This industry’s customers are characterized as highly price sensitive so they can easily switch to a product that is like in quality and service but offered at a lower price. Also, switching costs are quite low. Customers do not have to incur any cost for not buying from a firm.\r\nPlace\r\nYum Brands has more physical locations than any other restaurant in the world. Yum Brands operates over 38,000 restaurants in 110 countries. Yum Brands has focused on wash room for all consumers in the anatomical structure of their restaurant chains. With large physical location presence in the market, Yum Brands can ensure stability as well as harvest-feast. Recent expansion into China has also proved to be a booming market for more physical locations and gross sales festering. Yum Brands continues to surge in revenue and market share with each additional restaurant opened in expanding markets such as China.\r\nPromotion\r\n hostile competitors such as McDonalds who attempt to brand their products like the Big Mac, Yum Brands focuses on controlling the entire market. KFC chicken is an American ground of culture. KFC dominates the chicken market because of the great spirit and wide brand recognition of Colonel Sanders. There are fierce advertising battles among the large restaurant chains McDonalds, KFC, Pizza Hut, Subway, Taco Bell. Because brand recognition and price so greatly affect consumers, marketers want to crystallize customers aware of potfuls occurring at their chains. The Food Industry is one of the most heavily marketing industries in the world. In 2010, the fast food industry spent $4.2 Billion in advertising.\r\nAnalysis\r\nYum Brands has shown prodigious, consistent, large monetary gain in the last year. (YUM) has a market cowling of $23.99 billion with a price-to- network ratio of 20.75. The stock up has traded in a 52-week cheat on between $45.94 and $57.75. The stock is currently job around $52. On July 14th, the company inform second rump revenues of $2.82 billion, compared to revenues of $2.57 billion in the second quarter of 2010. Second quarter net income was $$1.16 billion compared to net income of $824 million in the second quarter of 2010. Yum Brands has shown satisfying financial proceeds over the prehistorical year, and projects continued offshoot and expansion through 2012. One of YUM’s competitors is McDonald’s Corporation (MCD). McDonald’s is currently trading around $90 with a market cap of $90.14 billion and a price-to-earnings ratio of 17.68. McDonalds pays a dividend that yields 2.8% versus YUM, whose dividend yields 2.2%.\r\nYUM is one of the largest food service company’s in the world. In 2010, the company increased its net income by 10% from $824 million in 2009 to $1.16 billion in 2010. YUM is an international company that is rapidly increasing its foreign earnings. In 2010, YUM took in $755 million from China while taking in $700 million in the united States. On September 15th Jim Cramer endorsed YUM. YUM has a insurance of paying out 35 to 40% of its profits in dividends. Over the last five years, the company has done well and has increased its dividend by 34.7%. I retrieve that YUM will continue to increase earnings, and that the dividend and the stock price will follow.\ r\nThis ratio shows us the portionage of do assets made up by goodwill and other intangibles is called the impalpable Asset Ratio. Heiserman, creater of the ratio, says he views anything over 20% as worrisome, â€Å"because management might be overpaying for the acquisition or acquisitions that gave rise to the goodwill.” Yum! Brands has an intangible assets ratio of 11%. This is below Heiserman’s threshold, and a sign that any gain you see with the company is healthy (Moore).\r\nThe strengths of Yum Brands is in their global reach and consistent financial growth. Also Yum Brands operates several large chains in a strategic move to diversify their assets and sales. However, their largest competitor McDonalds, has also shown significant financial growth and expansion. In 2010 McDonalds saying a global sales growth of 5.0% and earnings per share growth of 11%. Although, McDonalds is also showing large profits and increased growth, Yum Brands is increasing at a fast er rate. Yum Brands saw a 10% growth in sales in just the third quarter of 2010. Yum Brands is a low cost leader in the food industry with unique tasting differentiation. The wide availability and unbeatable cook of Yum Brand chains make it cheery and affordable for customers to buy from Yum Brands.\r\nYum Brands has cemented their products with unique appreciation differentiation by making their chains the leaders in the industry. A&W is Root Beer and KFC is fried chicken. Yum Brands has shown an excellent demonstration of Focus Strategies by not trying to compete with McDonalds. Yum Brands does not offer hamburgers, instead they have focused on cornering the market in Tacos, Fried Chicken, Pizza, Fish, and fountain beverages. This strategy is key to their continued growth. By letting McDonalds control burgers and fries, Yum Brands can belatedly take control of all other consumer needs in the fast food industry. This strategy will lead to Yum Brands besting McDonalds bec ause Yum Brands is showing much greater growth. However, McDonalds revenues are still much greater than Yum Brands. In 2010 McDonalds brought in $23.1Billion to Yum Brands $11.3 Billion.\r\nYum Brands has great Corporate Social Responsibility and leads many initiatives around the globe. In Australia, KFC has been working on a shut Loop recycling project for the agone three years. This program has attracted never in front seen government funding and is a world leading QSR recycling initiative. No other QSR in Australia (nor have we found elsewhere in world) is doing anything on this scale and equal. KFC has been awarded $400K from the Australian Packaging Covenant and state governments to go towards the infrastructure of the new â€Å"Split stack away” to support this initiative. In addition, 100 percent of waste oil is recycled.\r\nYum! Ranked #337 out of 500 on Newsweek’s 2010 spurt Rankings U.S. list #62 on Corporate Social Responsibility Magazine’s 100 B est Corporate Citizens proclivity of 2010, #33 in 2009 The company is pass judgment to enjoy a number of tailwinds in 2012 including lower interest expense due to favorable debt issuance over the ult couple of years and retirement of the April 2011 bonds as well as around 20 million currency translation benefits in China. Although Yum’s market is exposed to risks, such as changes in interest rates such as food cost pressure, wage inflation in China, competition, unpredicted margin pressure, inability to execute its growth plan, and food safety. Foreign currency convince rate risks exist as international operating profit constitutes around 50% of the company’s operating profit.\r\n expose variable factors affecting the U.S. results include consumer spending, petrol prices, housing market conditions, consumer credit, and stock market volatility. Taco Bell, which accounts for more than 60% of the total U.S. earnings, is presently the most important home(prenominal) brand. The recent Taco Bell pillowcase related to the content and quality of its beef products has negatively impacted the sales. Although, on April 18, Alabama-based Beasley Allen legal philosophy firm voluntarily withdrew the allegation, YUM expects the negative impact to continue in 2012.\r\nKFC and Pizza Hut are the primary concepts, accounting for well 96% of total YUM restaurants within the YUM Restaurants foreign (YRI) division. Each concept offers sit-in as well as take-home options for customers. YUM has over 38,000 restaurants in over 110 countries. YUM is also a leader within the Quick Service Restaurants (QSR) industry in China, with over 3,500 restaurants in the region (i.e., Taiwan, Mainland China, and Thailand), more than 1,800 of which are located in Mainland China.\r\nYum Brands is the worldwide leader in multi branding, which offers consumers more choice and convenience at one restaurant location from a combination of KFC, Taco Bell, Pizza Hut, A&W or Long John Silver’s brands.\r\nYum Brands has seen substantial annual growth for the historical 2 fiscal years.\r\nYum has seen tremendous growth in china with over 50% of Yum’s income coming from outside of the United States.\r\nYum is putting all its chips in China, and growth there was strong. Same store sales grew 19% in the quarter, compared with a 6% increase a year ago. Margins, though, eased and fell to 21.3%, from 25.2% a year ago. direct profits surged 13% to $301 million. Store sales in the U.S. fell 3%, compared with a 1% gain a year ago, while operating profits hit $143 million, down 16% from a year ago. Internationally, the company earned $163 million (up 15%) and saw system sales growth increase by 13% (Fontevecchia).\r\nIn May of 2011, Yum agreed to purchase Chinese hotpot chain Little Sheep for HK$4.56 billion. The deal spent more than 4 months in anti-trust review by the Chinese Ministry of Commerce, to determine whether or not the transaction would resu lt in a monopolistic positioning of Yum in the country’s restaurant industry. The Chinese Ministry just approved the deal in November of 2011, according to Little Sheep representatives. This new acquisition should continue to increase growth in China.\r\nYum recently raised its 2012 earnings per share forecast to $2.85, excluding one-time items, meaning growth of at least 13 percent, patronage what Chief Executive David Novak said were â€Å" bilk U.S. results. That compares to its previous forecast of a 12 percent gain. The forecast comes ahead of Yum’s annual investor day on November thirtieth and two months after the company sought-after(a) to reassure Wall Street that business in China remained on track. With this reassurance, Yum will continue to expand, giving investors a strong reason to invest. The share price went up in response to this news (Reuters).\r\nIn direct growth, Yum Brands far exceeds any other competition in the industry including their largest co mpetitor, McDonalds. If Yum Brands continues this net growth, they are on par to surpass McDonalds, becoming the global leader in the Food Service Industry.\r\nThe corporate structure of Yum Brands is strong, the company is continuing to increase involvement opportunities and expand their staff. David C Novak has been CEO of Yum Brands (YUM) for 6 years. Mr. Novak has been with the company for 20 years. The board of trustees overseas consistent growth of the company and the loading values of Yum Brands have served them well thus far in the Industry.\r\n'

Tuesday, December 25, 2018

'the increase in electoral support for the Nazi Party\r'

'To what achievement was the adjoin in electoral alimentation for the national socialist companionship in the years 1928-33 the result of effective propaganda and carillon? The years 1928 to 1933 were very significant for the national socialist troupe and their leader, Adolf Hitler. After the attempted Munich Putsch, the national socialist Party had well and truly entered the policy-making spotlight of German politics and had achieverfully re-established itself after Hitler was released from prison in 1924. following on from organism so heavily in the public eye, the Nazi Party had a rise in take over delinquent to join ond awareness of the troupe, and 1928 marked a steep attach in this.There are many factors that contributed to this add-on in electoral support for the Nazi Party from 1928-1933, but it was largely due to effective propaganda and campaigning. Nazi propaganda was under leaders of Joseph Goebbels, who was qualified to identify the concerns of all s ectors within the German population and exercise this to shape a remarkable propaganda scheme. An example of this is where workers were lecture with posters depicting endless queues of unemployed people, suggesting that Hitler would be able to abolish unemployment †a miracle that was pronto accepted by this group.As well as targeting specific groups, Goebbels was able to manipulate a intermixture of propaganda techniques, from employ posters to nursery rhymes to the radio. The Nazi Party presented an image that appea direct to bothone through their use of propaganda. It is because of propaganda that they were able to convince the public of their top executive to transform the country to one ridden with debts, political instability and embarrassment to a global superpower that was succeederful in every aspect. Even now, Nazi propaganda is still construeed as a remarkable achievement for the Nazi Party and is undoubtedly one of the primary(prenominal) reasons why Nazi support increase from 1928-1933.Electioneering is the other main reason for the increase in electoral support. In name of Nazi policy itself, although it was controversial, Hitler was careful to be very careful ab unwrap certain(prenominal) points †oddly regarding religion. The 25 Point platform of the Party depicted that it â€Å"represents the point of view of positive Christianity”, whereas in reality the Nazi Party stood for the complete opposite. With the majority of Germans being Christian (2/3 of these were Catholic and 1/3 Protestant), the Nazi’s could non afford to alienate the Church and hazard repelling the majority of the electorate. Throughout their carillon playing, the Nazi’s used the SA to intimidate the antonym and sometimes even carry out such violent attacks that political figures, especially Communist pols, were unable to continue their cause electioneering. This allowed the Nazi party to reduce their inverse and allowed t hem to manipulate the public further using their effective propaganda. As the Nazi Party organised propaganda rallies to build up electoral support, they also organised members to attend the rallies masked as potential suffrager turnoutrs. This gave the impression that the party was extremely popular and therefore advance voters that might otherwise vote for another(prenominal) larger party to support the Nazi’s instead. These propaganda rallies were used to persuaded all of Germany to vote for Hitler and his party because Hitler was able to constantly last around the country using an airplane. This electioneering meant that he was able to directly address potential supports and use propaganda to convince them to vote Nazi. It could be claimed that Hitler himself contributed largely to the electoral success of the Nazi Party. Many women found Hitler aesthetically attractive and emphasis was placed on his bright blue eyes and his couthy nature towards children. Men found Hitler as a man to admire †he was charismatic and some newspapers even label him ‘Hitler the Superman’. Above all, Hitler was a undimmed auditor and had the ability to captivate audiences that was left(p) by no other politician and delivered speeches with such power that it was hard not to be swept in by his manipulative and misleading words. However, it could not be said that Hitler himself contributed to the increase in electoral support to a larger extent than propaganda and electioneering. Another factor that could be argued to realize resulted in the increase in electoral support is the very climate of Germany during that time. followers on from the failure of war in 1918, Germany was stampeded with crises after crises. In economic terms, the reenforcement of the war had resulted in inflation and constrained Germany to borrow loans from the USA in revisal to pay the £6600 million in reparations. This meant that when the States suffered from the Wall Street Crash, Germany was hit by Depression in 1926. Living standards plummeted and Germany was on the verge of a civil war. Consequently, the German people looked towards extremist parties to provide them with the extremist change needed to return Germany to a least a partial stability. Again, whilst this was a big factor in increase of Nazi support, the situation in Germany was rapprochement out, especially as the effects of hyperinflation were weaken by 1925. Therefore, the hardships that Germany faced during this period cannot be accountable for the increase in the Nazi Party’s electoral success compared to the propaganda and electoral success that was constant end-to-end 1928-1933. In conclusion, the increase in electoral support for the Nazi Party in the years 1928-33 was the result of effective propaganda and electioneering to a far extent. A variety of factors contributed to this increase, including Hitler’s personality and the downfall of Germany during the post-war years. However, the strongest factors were persistently the Nazi’s propaganda campaign that was led by Goebbels and their electioneering methods. Through this, they were able to specifically target groups within the electorate and learn the Nazi image itself which drew support from voters and caused the German people to trust them to reinstate Germany’s former status.\r\n'

Saturday, December 22, 2018

'“The Notebook” Film\r'

'In the early 1900’s silent films astonished audiences with images, later chew outies impressed with sound, today we be experience 3D. As technology continues to evolve so too will film genres. Genres, darn having some shargond characteristics, also discord in terms of stylistic devices apply. For instance, the prominent film â€Å"The Notebook” effectively uses colourise to reinforce shank and has plausible performers as the two chief(prenominal) protagonists. â€Å"The Notebook” enjoin by Nick Cassavetes in 2004 tells the study of a couple’s fifty year long love function and its trials and tribulations.The film begins in a nursing home where an old man (Noah) reads a book to an old lady (Allie) harm from Alzheimer’s. Noah, a poor country boy, and Allie, a prolific city girl, meet in Noah’s village in summer and fall in love with individually other. Allie’s mother forbids the relationship and takes Allie out-of-do or to New York, where a few age later she gets engaged to Lon, an educated rich man. Before the wedding she reads a paper and sees Noah in front of a abode he once promised her to restore.She goes there and in brief they find they still love individually other. So Allie decides to dump Lon and be with Noah. The impression ends as Allie realizes that the story Noah has been reading to her is in fact the story of their romance. They fall incognizant holding hands and die peacefully. To denounce their creations unique film crews use contrasting techniques. Techniques vary from setting to point of view, and also include editing, color, sound, costume, camera angle, actors’ play and others. subscribe to guardrs use them in different ship canal for different purposes.For instance, each genre demands a particular type of action: in comedies the performance should be exaggerated, while in dramas it has to be very realistic. Colors act upon the way we perceive things and this is the reason directors ordinarily use dark and vague color in scenes of conflict, and bright ones to express happiness. thereof film makers pay much solicitude to techniques . Actors in â€Å"The Notebook” fit their employments very well and they perform plausibly. Ryan Gosling (Noah) suits his consumption of a young, careless lad and Rachel McAdams (Allie) is perfect for the role of an educated cheerful beauty.Their facial expressions, gestures and movements make audiences empathize with the protagonists. In the scene of their firstborn quarrel Rachel McAdams cries, sobs, portrays despair and pleads to stay ,as realistically as if she feels her character’s emotions. In scenes of happy moments she smiles and laughs sincerely, like when she listens to Noah (Ryan Gosling) sitting side by side(p) to her. Ryan Gosling also demonstrated his acting talents in the movie. His character is very romantic and incorruptible and the actor expressed these traits very well.For instance, in the scene he first meets her he looks at her with loving eyes, his eyebrows are elevated a bit as he cannot stop admiring her. When other women try to talk to him, he lets them see their attempts are unsatisfying via tone alternates and hands crossed on his chest, which express his love and faithfulness. Such a realistic actors’ performance reinforces the dramatic plot. impassioned and delicate colors predominate in ”The Notebook”. The creators intended to reinforce the theme also by means of colors.Episodes, in which Allie and Noah are together, have more neat, beige, pink, hop out blue and green. For instance, Noah painted the house he restored in white color; the leaf is clear and blue when they are together. The white color of the house represents purity of Noah’s love and his devotion to Allie, and the clear cast aside symbolizes peace. However, in those scenes where they part or have quarrels, colors are darker and vague . The two main quarrels, for example, happen at night and during the big(p) colour rain. The protagonists’ clothes also change in different situations.For their dates Allie wears bright and pastel color dresses, but while beingness parted they both wear grey and boring clothes. The film crew used specific colors to support the theme. particularized tools play a great role in film making. Color and performance set the tone in the dramatic film â€Å"The Notebook” and make it a good graphic symbol movie. Good quality movies are called so due to details, and bountiful film crews work hard to obtain this result. Other films by Nick Cassavetes are also very good, although he focussed on different tools in them.\r\n'

Wednesday, December 19, 2018

'Developmental Delays and Trauma Essay\r'

'developmental delays is when your child does not reach their developmental milest adepts at the projected times. It is an ongoing study or minor delay in the course of development. suppurational delays foundation imbibe many antithetic causes. in that respect be many types of Developmental delays in children; they accommodate problems with language or speech, vision, movement (motor skills), social, emotional and cognitive skills (van der Kolk, 1995). Developmental delays are easily distinguished if you hand close attention to the development and milest 1 periods contained by children; for example if you notice a child having a low attention span, they stack’t substantiation still, they’re highly active and energetic on the whole the time, that’s perhaps due to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, known as ADHD. There are so many different things that kindle cause developmental delays and children aren’t evermore born with development al delays. Although, developmental delays loafer be genetic or born with, there are times when scathe at different ages dirty dog cause developmental delays such as a child being abused and suffering headway trauma, concussion, which could cause memory lost. Or there could be an accident and a child or self-aggrandizing undergo serious injuries to the spine, eyes, and so on\r\nSpinal injuries can be of damage to you motor skills. Spinal injuries or brain injuries if serious can lead to you fundamentally having to start over as if you were a small fry culture to walk, read, jump, or talk. The Shaken baby syndrome as well as can be a trauma that can cause brain injuries. There are numerous of things that founder major components to play in developmental delays. Trauma definitely plays a one of those major weakens in developmental delays. There are a number of Trauma’s that can cause development delays. It doesn’t always have to be abuse or accidents. Trauma ca n be caused by divorce, neglect, bullying, sports injuries, or even lousy relationship breaks up. These types of trauma are called psychological trauma. mental traumas effects are mostly emotional and it isn’t always permanent. Psychological trauma causes anger, irritability; vagary swings, guilt, hopeless, anxiety, withdrawing, and disconnected to name a few. For divorce, Feldman says (2011) children and adults may capture depression, and disturbances and phobias and these things last from 6 months up until 2 years. Feldman states children whose parents are divorcing blames themselves for the breakup.\r\nHe also states, evidence shows that twice as many children of divorced parents enter psychological counsel (Feldman, 2011). Children under the age 18 suffer 40% more anxiety as a pull up stakes of divorce (van der Kolk, 1995). About 10-15 percent of students are bullied one time or the other (Feldman, 2011) and almost 85% of girls and 80% of boys are being bullied (Fel dman, 2011). Those who are bullied pretermit social skills, cry easy (Feldman, 2011), and they experience depression, stress, anger, etc. Prayer and meditation help brain activity. mediation to the mind is like an aerobic exercise to the body. Studies have also shown that meditation promotes mindfulness, decreased stress, insomnia, illnesses, depression, anxiety and panic. spiritual connection brings comfort and healing to trauma. Researchers are learning the parts of the brain that are responsible for the spiritual thoughts, prayer and meditation. In one of our presentations his week, Dr. Jeanne Brooks declared that we have a spiritual part in our brain (2014). There are good and severely parts to everyone, I believe the good part is the spiritual part in everyone. For example, we’ve all seen cartoons in which there was a devil on one shoulder and an holy person on the other. The shoulder with the angel is the part of us, the part of our brain or apprised that’s spiritual.\r\nReferences\r\nBrooks, Jeanne Dr. â€Å"Divorce and Stress” video presentation. LUO (2014) Feldman, R.S. (2014). Development across the Life Span (7th edition) Namka,, L. (2001). Children who are traumatized by bullying. alk, Trust and Feel Therapeutics., p. 18. Van Der Kolk, an der Kolk, B. (1995). developmental trauma disorder : Towards a rational diagnosis for children with composite plant trauma histories.\r\n'

Tuesday, December 18, 2018

'Summer essay\r'

'It was pretty hard to find fireside is once on that point are so legion(predicate) and this is what did over the pass. First of all, there was not more going on over the summer and there was a push-down stack going on at the same time. Over the summer I change by reversaled for my uncle and it was a very busy summer for me. At first gear of summer I went to his pertly office to perform u p or so new computers and printers. It took me just about two week before I was sleep together Ely immaculate with the setup and the installation. After I was finished with the setup. Went t o do some obtain for myself . When I was done went back to the office the contiguous day t o help my uncle conclusion new listing of places. I started listing house for new customer a ND investors. And was formally started my study. The close to exciting part about my summer was to find the house that will be touching in. There was a lot of listing of house. It dangle about a month Loki Eng for new in stock(predicate) houses for sale. And I also spend a lot of time going into houses that are for ale in Michigan.Choosing houses screw be a headache because you have to do background check in every iodin one of them you see. I didnt really have a g DOD summer, but I was gifted about the new house. And finally there a was house that found that everybody in my family really liked. And at a time it was almost end of s mummer and I was getting worried about school. Now I was getting ready for next school year. And immediately I was almost done working with my uncle. Did some shopping over the Summer, and getting re soda water school trials like notebooks and papers.I didnt actually go anywhere special eve r the summer, but I think my summer went pretty well than aside summer vacations that I had. This was also the summer with the most responsibilities that I had. In conclusion my summer vacation went very well. There was a lot of work an responsibilities. Enjoyed work ing with my uncle. He taught me a lot of new t wings that I did not knew, and I am really excited to move in the new home, and I hope m y next summer vacation would be point better than this.\r\n'

Monday, December 17, 2018

'How does Flaubert use the Agricultural fair at Rouen to further his satire of 19th century French society?\r'

'Gustave Flaubert wrote his novel Madame Bovary in the mid-nineteenth century as a satirical comment on the swiftness philia class, those who were just rich enough to take a leak to be rich. Flaubert loathed them and wrote his novel to defend them come to the fore as the fools that he thought them to be. His loathing for the upper middle class of 1850s France stemmed from the ideals which they held. Flaubert saw his fellows as a generation lost to the meritless and frivolous dreams of the cut Romantic travail.\r\n cut Romanticism was a work through all the creative arts towards idealising the creation which artists constructed. Although equally present in music and opthalmic art, Flaubert focused both his hatred and his satire on the literature of the judgment of conviction, this reactionary reputation earned him the form of address of a â€Å"naturalist”. This was however something that Flaubert hated; the representational movement was one(a) that focused on spe cifics and on realism in a work, whereas Flaubert sought to make his story one that was applicable to any effectuateting. though his at extion to detail in places mirrors that of a realist or naturalist writer, this is non his essential suggest.\r\nFlaubert defies any tackle to fit his work to a particular movement or style in French literature, though in that respect is little doubt that his work Madame Bovary is a reactionary satire of French romanticism and of the burgher society that regurgitated the clich�s of the movement. Each word in the novel is c arfully chosen, so the book becomes a painstakingly constructed trap which ensn ars the thoughts of the ref and guides them to the conclusions that Flaubert wants us to make. Although every(prenominal) word in the novel is vital to Flauberts purpose, at that place are certain key passages that are oddly pivotal to the book. Among these is his description of the agricultural fair at Rouen in Part II Chapter 8. whizz separate of this describes a conversation that occurs among Rodolphe and Emma in the boor fair that surrounds it.\r\nThe passage begins with a monologue from Rodolphe: what he expresses in the passage is a fairly clich� set of ideals from the romantic movement. He talks of â€Å"Striving souls” and â€Å" slaughter hearts” . Particularly typical is the idea of cardinal souls matched by fate that cannot be drawn apart. stock-still despite the manner of speaking of the text the tone is not one of romance. Flaubert intentionally marrs Rodolphes words by introducing them with the clock period:\r\nâ€Å"Rodolphe had moved in closer to Emma, he was talking in a low voice, speaking cursorily”\r\nThis has the effect that Rodolphe appears to be making a clunky attempt to seduce Emma, kind of than simply expressing dire sentiments. Another tool that Flaubert uses to make the entire detail still more comedic, is by consistently severalise the everyday provinciality of the agricultural fair with the frivolous fantasies in which the two â€Å"star crossed lovers” engage. This is used consistently through erupt the passage, but it makes its first appearance in introduction to this section: Flaubert talks of bleating lambs and cattle, accordingly unawares Rodolphe says:\r\nâ€Å"Dont you find this social conspiracy revolting? Is there one sacred feeling that they do not condemn?”.\r\nThis adds to the readers feeling that Rodolphe and Emma are completely in a world of their own with little or no connection to the reality of the bovine conspirators. The reader should note the over-punctuation which creates a disjointed tone:\r\nOh! fetch what may, sooner or later, in six months, ten years, they will be together, will be lovers, because depute ordains it, because they were born for one another.\r\nFlaubert runs the entire monologue into a single split. This has the effect that we are left with the feeling o f a clumsy attempt at conquering muttered quickly under the breath.\r\nIn the next paragraph Flaubert describes the sensations that Emma feels. He writes of Emmas observations of Rodolphe. Ironically much of the passage is give to describing the smell of Rodolphes pomade and to the fresh curve of the common ivy climbing a nearby house, but one can only imagine the onslaught of odours that would drift against ones nostrils in a rural agricultural fair. Flauberts authorship here mimics that of French Romanticism, his style is an exaggeration of the literary genre that he seeks to mock. This is perhaps also a reflection of the feelings that Emma wants to have as much as the feelings that she does have.\r\nThe next paragraph contains the concluding section of the Councillors speech. One should note the immediate change: Emma has been lost to the scent of Rodolphes hair, and then suddenly the councillor shouts out â€Å" resolution! Perseverance!”, ideals which are in stark note to Emmas thoughts of desire. This serves to make Emma appear junior, concerned only with those matters that are emotive and frivolous.\r\nFlaubert makes another sly stab here, this time at the church service.\r\nEndurance! Perseverance! Heed incomplete the voice of habit, nor the over-hasty teachings of rash sensationalism! Dedicate yourselves in a higher place all to the improvement of the soil, to good manure, to the development of the respective(a) breeds, equine, bovine, ovine and porcine.\r\nIf one reads the opening sentences from the Councillors speech it becomes unfastened that his manner of oration is based on the classify of a â€Å"hellfire and damnation” preacher: the analogy can perhaps be most clear seen in the way he cries out virtues, and in â€Å"Heed neither the voice of habit, nor the over-hasty teachings of rash empiricism” a sentence that is quite biblical in its construction if not in its subjects. This is certainly a caricature of an evangelical preacher. This impression is aided by the Councillors introduction:\r\nâ€Å"…she could hear… the voice of the councillor psalming out his phrases”\r\nMimicking the style of a over-zealous padre serves to mock the church by imitation. Applying this same manner of speech to such a mundane topic as tillage rather than religion serves to demystify it, making it appear comical. Lieuvain then dismounts his pulpit and is replaced by another speaker.\r\nFlaubert takes the fortune of introducing the new orator to contrast the trivial nature of Rodolphe and Emmas discourse with the profound speech of Monsieur Derozerays. This is done by contrasting pairs of sentences throughout the paragraph, alternating between describing the lovers conversation, and describing the speech. This technique begins thus:\r\nAccordingly, praise of the government played a lesser role; religion and agriculture were rather more in evidence… Rodolphe, with Madame Bovary, was talking dreams, premonitions, magnetism.\r\nWe at once move a little lower on the rogue and find a similar contrast:\r\n…Cincinnatus at his plough, Diocletian planting his cabbages and the emperors of China bringing in the New Year by planting seeds, the juvenile man was explaining to the young woman that these irresistible attractions had their rootage in some previous existence…\r\nFlaubert clearly wants to make a mockery of the whole billet. He is trivialising these matters of the heart by comparing them to the hardworking pack of the fields, where the labourers are planting seeds for the New Year. Flaubert continues to alternate between describing the speech and describing the seduction. The contrasts between the two begin subtly but as we continue down the page they grow less and less so. By the time we reach the bottom of the page Flaubert has begun to intermingle the words of Rodolphe, speaking of love and destiny and of all the ideals of French romantici sm and Derozerays, who talks of money of work and of that which is cover and substantive:\r\n†Did you know that I would be escorting you?\r\n†lxx francs!3\r\n†A hundred times I wanted to leave, and I followed you, I stayed.\r\n†Manures!\r\n†As I shall stay this evening, tomorrow and the day after, all my life.\r\nFlauberts purpose in this entire extract is to satirise the seduction. to a greater extent importantly, it is to show that the ideals that are shared by the middle class and the Church concern matters that are emotive and are therefore trivial compared to those things concrete such as land, money and food. Flaubert trivialises the entire Romantic genre by setting a clich�d romantic conversation, that proliferates with the wording and metaphors that permeate the literature that he is satirising. He then places this exaggeration of the Romantic movement into a situation that is overwhelmingly provincial and agricultural. This serves his purpose of mocking the petty bourgeoisie and the Romantic movement.\r\n'

Sunday, December 16, 2018

'How and Why the Nazis Rose to Power\r'

'In this essay I will explain how and why the national socialists rose to power, elaborating on the circumstances of the great depression, the Weimar republic, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party. Hitler and the Nazis were not prosperous in stimulateing power from up to 1928, this is because people thought all told(a) Nazis were brutes and believed that Hitler was a good-looking joke. Nobody was interested in the Nazi ideas or plans and plus, Ger more wasn’t quite ready for them. But Hitler in brief came into power in many different ways. He promised to undo the Versailles pact which Germany had to reparation to England and France.He also promised to animate hope and to deal with the depression. Hitler also doomed the Jews for inflicting calamity to Germany. Everyone soon agreed to the Nazi plans for getting rid of democracy and started to follow his ways. In 1929, the American expect exchange collapsed and caused an economic depression. America called in all its foreign loans, which destroyed Weimar Germany. Unemployment in Germany rose to 6 million. The German companies collapsed, the unemployment rate was extremely high, everyone resulted to violence and tillage was a crisis because of the low food prices.The government didn’t know what to do so in July 1930 the prime minister cut wages and unemployment pay which had to be the thrash thing to do during the depression. The anger and bitterness helped the Nazis to gain more support; in 1928, the Nazis had just 12 seats in the Reichstag and by July 1932 they had 230 seats and were the largest party. The Weimar nation was after(prenominal) WWI when Germany became a democratic republic after the Kaiser fled. German citizens were allowed to vote, hold meeting for trade unions and would only be arrested if they broke the law which was all fair.There were many problems with the Weimar Republic which was the high unemployment, hunger, poverty; hyperinflation and the leaders were blamed for si gning the hated Treaty of Versailles. The Weimar Republic lasted until 1945, when the German government was finally dissolved because of the Second reality War. The main reason why he became prime minister was because of the great depression advantage he had provided Hitler was also a great speaker, with the power to figure out people support him. The depression of 1929 created poverty and unemployment, which do people angry with the Weimar government.People lost confidence in the democratic system and turned towards the extremist political parties such as the Communists and Nazis during the depression. The SA also attacked the Nazis opponents. The Nazis were clearly all Fascists because they all had very extreme right wing views which were racist and nationalistic (e. g. getting rid of Jews/ perfect(a) race). There are many reasons why Hitler had pursue to power. Germany had just been through a war and had lost. The Treaty of Versailles made a contract for Germany which mad e alimentation in Germany very hard.The people of Germany were poor and where bother with the Treaty. They wanted someone to help them out of the quite a little they were in. So Hitler offered them everything they wanted, the people of Germany were brain washed with posters, radio, newspapers and leaflets. Hitlers speeches where self-coloured and effective, the Germans liked the idea of having one strong leader. The Nazis were unionized and smart, people liked that; in 1930 The Nazis pulled 6,500,000 votes. Hitler was appointed prime minister of Germany by President Hindenburg on 30th January 1933 which was 1/3 of the total votes an outstanding 13,500,000.\r\n'

Friday, December 14, 2018

'Title Critically discuss the ways UNICEF engage media techniques in their communications’ strategy.\r'

'Introduction\r\n colloquy strategies atomic enumerate 18 designed to tending governmental and non-governmental arrangings pull in utilely to meet core objectives. In the new digital age, communicating with the media has wrench an strong guidance of targeting consultations and persuading them to act by either providing keep going or giving money (Goodman and Hirsch, 2010: 2). The non-governmental organisation (nongovernmental organization) UNICEF volunteers an fount of how the potent intent of glib media techniques in a talk theory come inline loafer help to generate seat of government and affirm. UNICEF offices a make sense of different techniques, which all help to raise aw argonness of the objectives that ar trying to be achieved (Dijkzeul and Moke, 2005: 673). With peculiar(a) sharpen on infantren, UNICEF is subject to extend with auditions to rule humanitye assistance. A higher full point of financial independence is acquired and subsequ ently apply for human-centered and education activities (Dijkzeul and Moke, 2005: 673). It is un likely that such(prenominal) assistance would be obtained with off the wasting complaint of conf apply media techniques. This essay volition critically discuss the ship canal UNICEF engage media techniques in their confabulations’ system.\r\nMedia Techniques and semi governmental communication theory \r\nThe main objective of al close to media cognitive contents is to persuade or foster the audience to take or do something (MLP, 2014: 1). In doing so, a number of different techniques atomic number 18 used to grab the audience’s attention and to establish trust and credibleness (Erwin, 2014: 104). One technique that is used by the media is the use of go quotations from beat sources. This makes the reader believe the stratum world t aged(prenominal) and is often used as a powerful motivator to encourage the reader to act, for example, by giving money or purchasing something (MLP, 2014: 1). Where direct quotations atomic number 18 used, it is more(prenominal) likely that the message being conveyed volition be successful received as the audience forget believe what is being said. such(prenominal) techniques be referred to as the â€Å"language of persuasion” and argon essential media literacy skills (Changing Minds, 2013: 1). This was recognised by Lippmann who believed that persuasion had become a â€Å"self-conscious fraud and a fixedness organ of popular government (Denton and Kuypers, 2007: 1). Persuasion is so a vogue of creating consent from individuals ab bring out a particular premise and is cap equal to(p) of modifying governmental converses in a very influential port. Unless communions ar persuasive, it is doubtful that they go away be strong since persuasion is the main communicating tool that is ingest by the media. Governments use persuasion as a operator of obtaining consent from the mess ages being conveyed, to a fault cognize as policy-making communication. policy-making communication is considered to shake the following four elements; 1) short-term orientation; 2) ground upon specific objectives; 3) mainly mediated; and 4) audience centred. policy-making communication is non exclusive to the policy-making mankind as non- semipolitical actors too use this type of communication as a way of communicating messages to the populace. This is by and large done by organisations that flummox a political objective such as; non-governmental organisations (nongovernmental organization’s).\r\nAn nongovernmental organization is an organisation that is separate and distinct from governments and profitable patronagees. Although nongovernmental organization’s can be funded by governments and businesses, they atomic number 18 commonly set up by ordinary citizens to farther an agenda (Welch, 2000: 1). Whilst the agenda’s of numerous nongovernme ntal organization’s pull up stakes differ, the methods of communication that ar used leave alone be similar in that they forget all prove to usefully communicate their objectives to the targeted audience. The particular objective of most nongovernmental organization’s is to as authorized that human rights ar being fully protected. Although nongovernmental organization’s from different jurisdictions leave not unceasingly soak up the same goals, they go out still be structured in a similar manner. This is because nongovernmental organization’s slackly seek to kick upstairs human rights worldwide, which requires them to co-operate with governments and the United Nations (Wong, 2012: 37). nongovernmental organization’s argon overly crucial in assist to bring universal interest matters before the courts (Wadham, 2001: 1). The mess hall media is a reclaimable tool that take ons political communications of nongovernmental organizati on’s to be effectuated, yet companionable, cultural and psychological problems are usually associated with media content and use (Perse, 2001: 1). It was stressed by Young that modern union engulfs its members done the media, cultivation and mesh inside the market smudgeplace (Young, 1999: 82). The media is capable of articulating judgements by adopting various ideologic approaches. It has been said by Croteau and Hoynes that the media do not promote a singular familiarity of political theory and instead communicate a number of different ideological perceptions (Croteau and Hoynes, 2012: 154). They noted that sociable ideologies are more domineering of hostelry than mainstream ideologies because of the fact that population pay as much attention to bridle-path scenes, hovictimization and clothing as they do to the interpretation when watching international news (Thompson, 1995: 176). Arguably, it is clear from these assertions that the media is exceedingly power ful in influencing the minds of individuals, which is why it is a take of communication that is commonly used by nongovernmental organization’s to further their agenda’s. The media is capable of shaping an audiences subjectivity through the representation of ideological notion’s. NGO’s in that respectby benefit from victimisation media techniques to persuade their targeted audience to act in a certain manner.\r\nThe media is extremely powerful in persuading the lieus, beliefs and doingss of inn through the use of propaganda. Propaganda is a form of communication that influences an audience to act establish on a particular agenda. Propaganda is used as a subject matter of generating emotional responses to messages that are produced to influence loving attitudes towards a particular cause or position. NGO’s often use propaganda to fulfil their objectives and are indeed considered effective cultural propaganda disseminators (Cull et al; 200 3: 193). NGO’s have been considered political science of the deplorable on the solid ground that they represent political ideologies (Karim, 2001: 92). semipolitical political orientation is a set of ideas which represent the objectives, expectations and consummations of a political party. A broad range of belief systems exist inside different political parties and have generally been acquired from doctrines, ideals, myths, principles and social movements. Ideology is a system that is made up of values and beliefs â€Å"regarding the various institutions and surgical operationes of decree that is accepted as fact or truth by a group of host” (Sargent, 2008: 2). governmental political theory so comprises the views of political parties on how the world should be. This allows political parties to share social values (Easton, 1971: 129) and determine what is considered an ‘ideal’ world. thither are different views and opinions of ideological the ory, though ideology is more often than not operate by competing groups in society who strive for hegemony (Hall, 1997: 13). Hegemony happens when the most dominant in society promotes, through the media and culture, a set of ideals that members of that society essential aline to ( eitheran, 2004: 6). This is beneficial for NGO’s who use the media to establish an ideological perception of the rights in which they are trying to protect. In deciding whether certain behaviours conform to society, the set of ideals that have been constituted within that society bequeath deficiency to be considered by the media when deciding what messages need to be conveyed. Many believe that this is unfair and toughened as ideology only serves the interests of one element of society over all other segments (Curra, 2000: 6). This prejudices many split of society as certain groups may not benefit from the open ideals that are created. As pointed out by Brown et al; ideology may only b e beneficial to certain ethnic groups, genders or religions (Brown et al; 2010: 9). This does not leave behind an accurate reflection of the whole of society and whilst ideals are necessary in helping people to notice what is right and wrong, it seems unacceptable to segregate certain separate of society. This may, however, be necessary when protecting the rights of certain individuals. Political ideologies are subject to further critique on the basis that they do not consider the require of modern society (Stankiewicz, 2012: 408), yet as pointed out by Selinger; â€Å"There is no politics without ideology” (Selinger, 1975: 99). In effect, this bug outs to demonstrate that all political communications pass on have some element of ideology as moral judgements pull up stakes be contained within them. Effectively, the objectives of NGO’s will be based upon ideological beliefs and will mostly have a political objective. An example of this can be seen in relation to t he United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), which is an NGO that provides humanitarian and development assistance to mothers and children in develop countries. The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) created UNICEF on the eleventh December 1946 to provide food and healthcare to children that had been counter diverge by World War II.\r\nAlthough UNICEF is not operated by the government, it like many other NGO’s largely relies upon governmental shop and political communications. NGO’s have, for some time, relied upon the mass media to expose violations of human-rights and encourage governments to put pressure on those found to be abusing them (Thrall et al; 2014: 3). This is intended to discourage human rights abuses from winning place and to help the perpetrators be put to ripeice. The potential of this is arguable, though it seems as though greater choke off is being acquired by the likes of UNICEF as a egress of this. Since the advancement of moder n technology UNICEF is now able to establish new communication strategies for channeling breeding politics via the internet (Chadwick and Phillip, 2008: 3). It is arguable whether the strategies that are being undertaken by UNICEF are effective in persuading audiences to support their cause, though it seems likely given UNICEF’s use of the media. The media is largely proficient in influencing society of certain ideological perceptions through television computer programs, newspapers, magazines, films and tuner create by mental acts (Long and Wall, 2009; 285). These forms of communication are used in a way that manipulates societal values and beliefs and will continue to influence the ways in which we think close to things whether consciously or subconsciously (Kenix, 2010: 1). none only does the media send out ideological messages to the public but media systems have also been intertwined into society’s ideological cloth. This suck ups the power of the media in shaping individuals values and beliefs within society. UNICEF’s campaigns are mainly in the form of mass media, radio programmes, posters, street plays and localised outreach (UNICEF, 2014: 1). Because of this, a wider range of support will be acquired. UNICEF is reaching out to a broader audience, which will generate a massive union of support and financing that would not otherwise be available. Arguably, it is imperative that the media techniques being used in UNICEF’s communications schema are effective in helping to shape ideological views on the rights of children. UNICEF is an cheer of children’s rights and so it is necessary for UNICEF to communicate how these rights are being violated and what protections need to be in place. This will help UNICEF to gain support and the message UNICEF is trying to put across will be better received by the public.\r\ncommunicatings system \r\nThe communications strategy of UNICEF is vital in modify human develop ment and avoiding missed opportunities. An ineffective communications strategy will generally yield poor results and stifle the development of UNICEF (UNDP, 2014: 1). UNICEF’s targeted audience will not receive the message that is being portrayed. This will prevent UNICEF from developing, which will impact its success.. Effective communications are important skills NGO’s need to survive and be successful (KDID, 2013: 28). To make an impact, UNICEF will thus be required to use effective means of communication to go over that their views and opinions are heard. In doing so, they will most likely suit a number of difficult challenges because of the fact that it has become progressively difficult to deliver to society complex humanitarian crises. It is also difficult to explain to society who is entangled in certain humanitarian crisis’ because of how widespread they generally are (ICRC, 2005: 673). A huge amount of NGO’s currently strive for media attent ion, thereby highlighting the need to have effective communication strategies in place (Thrall et al; 2014: 19). UNICEF must adopt a coherent and credible approach when conveying public communication so that its message can be heard. It has been said that in dictate to understand political communication, one must understand how consent is created (Denton and Kuypers, 2007: 1). UNICEF will thus be required to communicate messages in a way that allows consent to be obtained, which will need to be included within the communications strategy of UNICEF. A good communications strategy will help to certify good organisational stigmatisation and positioning, which will help to attract staff, donors and volunteers (KDID, 2013: 28).\r\nSuccessful stigmatisation through media communications will put an NGO in a desirable position within the community, which will help to get support and belief from the public. This will require NGO’s to be completely transparent so that the messages in which they are trying to put across can be understandably communicated (Thrall et al; 2014: 19). Unless UNICEF adopts a transparent and clear approach, it will be difficult to gain support and belief from the public (Lilleker, 2006: 4). Public support is, however, crucial to the implementation of potpourri (Rabinowitz, 2013: 3). Without public support, it is doubtful that UNICEF would be as successful as they are. It is debatable what the trump out techniques for gaining public support are, though an effective communications strategy that takes into account UNICEF’s agenda and identifies points that will require persuasive communication will most likely prove successful. It is important that the communications strategy identifies the approaches and tools that are needed to make a particular event more effective. In developing a communications strategy, it first needs to be established what UNICEF is trying to achieve. Subsequently, it will then need to be considered wha t communications objectives will most likely support the objectives of the project (McManus, 1994: 58). The communications objectives of UNICEF will be those that are capable of being reached through various means of communications. Such objectives will also need a target audience. This will require UNICEF to consider who they are trying to reach. In reaching out to the target audience, UNICEF will need to develop appropriate messages which highlight the relevant issues; the actions that needs to be taken by the target audience; and the benefits of such action (KDID, 2013: 28). at one time this has been done, UNICEF will then have to consider how these messages will be delivered. Different methods of communication will be considered depending upon the type of event that is being promoted such as; media conferences, social media, interviews, marketing, advertisements and news stories.\r\nGiven that UNICEF targets underdeveloped countries, it is likely that difficulties will be faced when considering the political objectives of various countries. Political communications are likely to pull up stakes from one country to another, which will create a number of problems. An effective communications strategy will seek to mention these difficulties, though it will uphold arguable whether they will prove sufficient in achieving certain objectives (Thrall et al; 2014: 19). In Africa, for example, the media seems to control those in power by reporting to citizens. Whilst this demands a stage of institutional independence from the political system, it has been said that there is actually a â€Å"clear interdependence betwixt the media and political systems” (Windeck, 2014: 17). Information from political systems is usually interchange for coverage in the media system and vice versa. The media consequently rely heavily on the supply of pronounceation from politics, whilst political bodies rely on the media to spread their messages and objectives (Windeck, 20 14: 17). Political communication is an important tool in the political process, and will continue to influence politics. In effect, the political communications of certain countries will be driven by cultural and political factors, which may be difficult to overcome. Female genital mutilation is one line of business that UNICEF continues to campaign against, but is faced with many political objections from countries where FGM is prevalent; Asia, the Middle East and some parts of Africa (Gaber, 2007: 219). UNICEF are resultantly required to implement a strategy that is capable of strengthening the political commitment of governments.\r\nUNICEF’s Communications Strategy\r\nThere are threesome components of communication that are used by UNICEF to garner support and funding. These are; advocacy, social militarisation and behaviour change communication (UNICEF, 2008: 7). Advocacy is used to inform and motivate leadership so that a supportive environment can be created. This w ill allow the objectives and development goals of the program to be achieved. Social militarization seeks to engage support and participation from various institutions, social and religious groups, and community networks. It is intended that the development objectives of UNICEF will be maintained through the use of social mobilization and that greater demand will be generated. Behaviour change communication involves face to face discussions with a number of individuals and groups to motivate, inform, plan and problem-solve. It is anticipated that by using this technique, the objectives of UNICEF can be met (UNICEF, 2008: 7). Various abstract models are used by UNICEF to implement communication including ACADA, P-Process and COMBI. The ACADA (Assessment, Communication Analysis, Design, Action) model is frequently used by UNICEF to use systematically-gathered data to link communications strategies to development problems. The P-Process model, developed by The Johns Hopkins Bloomber g School of Public health/Center for Communication Programs (CCP), is used for the strategic think of evidence based communication programmes and contains the following volt steps; 1) analysis, 2) strategic design, 3) development and testing, 4) implementation and monitoring, and 5) evaluation and re-planning (UNICEF, 2008: 7).\r\nThe COMBI model uses a ten step process for communication planning, which are; 1) overall goal, 2) behavioural results/objectives, 3) situational market analysis, 4) results strategy, 5) plan of action, 6) management structure, 7) monitoring, 8) impact appraisal, 9) scheduling, and 10) budget (UNICEF, 2008: 7). All three of these models seek to establish an effective communications strategy by analysing the different approaches that can be taken and considering the necessary steps needed. Analysis is inbuilt to an effective communications strategy as it will enable any underlying issues to be identified and thereby dealt with accordingly. UNICEF unde rtakes a comprehensive analysis comprising of; the situation, the programme, the participants, the behaviours, and the communication impart (UNICEF, 2008: 7). The situation instalment describes the issues that are being addressed by UNICEF such as; child poverty, disease, malnutrition and trafficking. This is based upon data that has been collected from local knowledge, programme documents and research. The data highlights the underlying social and cultural issues by demonstrating what changes need to be made to social structures and practices. The programme section is designed to establish where the objectives of UNICEF can be achieved by communication. The participant section establishes what people are required to achieve UNICEF’s objectives. The behaviour section focuses on setting behavioural objectives and analysing the behaviours or practices that have been selected for change. Finally, the communication take section considers the available communication channels tha t are applicable in achieving the objectives. at one time the analysis has been completed, UNICEF will have identified the participants, behaviours and channels of communications that are needed to encourage audience participation and accomplish its goals (UNICEF, 2008: 7).\r\nIn order to ensure that the objectives of UNICEF are being met by changing the attitude and behaviour of individuals, knowledge alone will not be sufficient. Instead, a supportive environment will also need to be established (UNICEF, 2008: 37). Therefore, whilst the communications strategy of UNICEF will need to instil knowledge into the community so that support can be acquired, a supportive environment will also need to be created. This will involve creating policies that mitigate access to services and by using leaders that help to promote social and behaviour change amongst various members of society. Resources will also need to be allocated for the programme activities that are to be carried out and o ptimistic change will be effectuated by using a combination of communication techniques. UNICEF believes that communication goes way beyond providing information to the targeted audience and instead show that communication is vital for development (Dijkzeul and Moke, 2005: 673). UNICEF has therefore set up a development programme, also know as C4D, which aims to engage communities through understanding people’s beliefs, values and social and cultural norms (Lenni and Tacchi, 2013: 16). This is achieved from comprehend to adults and children, identifying issues and working out solutions. This is considered a two way process that allows individuals to share knowledge and ideas through the use of various communication techniques that empower communities to take action in improving the lives of children (Lenni and Tacchi, 2013: 16). Advocacy is one technique UNICEF engages in its communications strategy, which is the â€Å"act of supporting a cause to produce a desired changeà ¢â‚¬Â (Save the Children, 2014: 1). Advocacy is capable of influencing governments to effect change by communicating with the media, elected officials and influential leaders.\r\nAdvocacy is able to encourage leaders to implement various changes such as; legal reform, policy decisions, addressing social and political barriers, and altering funding priorities. Advocacy efforts being used by UNICEF occur at global, national and sub-level and seek to influence the decisions of policy makers as well as political and social leaders. This is done through the unveiling of an enabling policy and legislative environment and by allocating resources appropriately to create and sustain social fault (UNICEF, 2011: 1). For example, in 2010 when polio resurfaced in the Democratic republic of Congo, there existed a lack of awareness of the disease and how it could be prevented. Influential leaders, such as Marco Kiabuta, did not believe that the vaccination of polio was necessary. After a numbe r of debates with community mobilisers and leaders Kiabuta came to realise just how vital a vaccination was. This example demonstrates how effective communication techniques can make a huge difference in implementing change and possibly saving(a) lives (UNICEF, 2011: 1). Advocacy is used by UNICEF to target political, business and social leaders at national and local levels. It is not used simply to create mass awareness but is also used as a means of generating change and leading to a specific action that is to be taken (UNICEF, 2010: 20). UNICEF uses advocacy to inform and motivate appropriate leaders to create a supportive environment by changing polices, speaking out on critical issues, allocating resources and initiating public discussion. Communication is a powerful tool, which is why it is important for various media techniques to be adopted by NGO’s such as UNICEF. Social mobilisation is another method of communication that is used by UNICEF to enlist participants, c ommunity networks, and religious groups to strengthen participation in various activities. This helps to engage and motivate partners and associate to raise awareness of UNICEF’s development objectives through face-to-face dialogue. Partners and allies subsequently work in concert to target audiences and convey certain messages. Social mobilisation is used as a way to allay change through a range of players that are engaged in interrelated and complementary efforts (UNICEF, 2012: 1). An example of this can be seen in relation to the training community health workers in Madagascar received from UNICEF. The health workers were trained to provide outreach to families on various issues including, softwood washing, vaccinating children, and not defecating in the open (UNICEF, 2012: 1). This is clearly an effective communication technique that is used by UNICEF as it allows certain individuals to be trained up so that they can pass their knowledge onto others. This has a domino like effect and will enable the views of UNICEF to be conveyed to a wider audience than that which would have been likely through advertisements alone. Social mobilisation is therefore an effective way of spreading messages to targeted audiences and helping to achieve the objectives of UNICEF, which is to provide assistance to mothers and children in underdeveloped countries. Behaviour change communication is another method that is used to address knowledge, attitudes and practices that are linked to programme goals. This is done by providing participants with â€Å"relevant information and motivation through decipherable strategies, using an audience-appropriate mix of interpersonal, group and mass media channels and participatory methods” (UNICEF/INDA, 2012, 1). Behaviour change communication strategies focus on the individual to effect change. In order for behavioural changes to happen on a bigger scale, social change communication needs to be employed. This technique he lps to define and address social influences in flavour and is currently being employed by UNICEF through the Social Ecological Model framework” (UNICEF/INDA, 2012, 1). The media techniques that are currently being used by UNICEF do appear effective in helping to persuade audiences to provide support. The more UNICEF does to spread its message, the more successful UNICEF will be in achieving its aims.\r\nThe Meena Communication Initiative in South Asia gives an example of how mass media and interpersonal communication is used to enhance the egotism and self-worth of children by enabling them to become familiar with life skills that are essential empowerment tools. The programme is primarily school based and is centred around a nine-year old girl called Meena who seeks to fight against the stigma that surrounds HIV/ support (UNICEF/INDA, 2012, 1). A radio station called ‘Meena Radio’ was launched in 2010 to communicate with children, their parents, educators and c ommunity leaders. This provides an effective means of communication and provides a platform for UNICEF’s political beliefs to be heard. It is intended that the radio station’s audience will be persuaded to act so that the voices of children and communities can be heard through the power of communication. This helps to promote child survival, development, protection and participation (UNICEF, 2014: 1). It is clear that UNICEF uses a number of different media techniques in its communications strategy to achieve its objectives. Without the use of such techniques, the voices of children and communities would not be heard and UNICEF’s message would not be delivered to its intended audience. It has been said that UNICEF â€Å"raises considerable funds and carries out strong communication on its own through its national committees, press centre and media team” (Dijkzeul and Moke, 2005: 683). This signifies the splendour of having an effective communications str ategy is in place as it can generate a evidentiary amount of funding that would not otherwise be available. UNICEF also uses high profile figures to be its ambassadors who have been considered a highly effective in persuading society (Stromback, 2011: 42).\r\nConclusion \r\nOverall, an effective communication strategy in an important tool for helping governmental and non-governmental organisations communicate effectively to meet core objectives. Given that UNICEF relies on voluntary donations from members of the public, government departments, charitable trusts and event organisers, it is important that they are capable of successfully communicating their objectives. In doing so, they will be required to persuade or encourage their audiences to provide support or funding so that UNICEF’s end goals can be achieved. Given that UNICEF uses a number of different media techniques in its communications strategy, the approach that is currently being undertaken does appear workable. The media is a powerful tool in the art of persuasion, which is what UNICEF needs in order to survive. The use of media techniques will help to raise awareness of UNICEF’s objectives and obtain humanitarian assistance. It is unlikely that such assistance would be obtained without the use of various media techniques, which is why UNICEF’s communications strategy does appear largely effective.\r\nReferences\r\nAllan, S. (2004), unuseds Culture. Bukingham: exonerated University Press.\r\nChanging Minds. (2013). Persuasive Language, [Online], getable: [07 July 2014].\r\nChadwick, A. and Phillip, H. (2008). 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