Friday, December 14, 2018

'Title Critically discuss the ways UNICEF engage media techniques in their communications’ strategy.\r'

'Introduction\r\n colloquy strategies atomic enumerate 18 designed to tending governmental and non-governmental arrangings pull in utilely to meet core objectives. In the new digital age, communicating with the media has wrench an strong guidance of targeting consultations and persuading them to act by either providing keep going or giving money (Goodman and Hirsch, 2010: 2). The non-governmental organisation (nongovernmental organization) UNICEF volunteers an fount of how the potent intent of glib media techniques in a talk theory come inline loafer help to generate seat of government and affirm. UNICEF offices a make sense of different techniques, which all help to raise aw argonness of the objectives that ar trying to be achieved (Dijkzeul and Moke, 2005: 673). With peculiar(a) sharpen on infantren, UNICEF is subject to extend with auditions to rule humanitye assistance. A higher full point of financial independence is acquired and subsequ ently apply for human-centered and education activities (Dijkzeul and Moke, 2005: 673). It is un likely that such(prenominal) assistance would be obtained with off the wasting complaint of conf apply media techniques. This essay volition critically discuss the ship canal UNICEF engage media techniques in their confabulations’ system.\r\nMedia Techniques and semi governmental communication theory \r\nThe main objective of al close to media cognitive contents is to persuade or foster the audience to take or do something (MLP, 2014: 1). In doing so, a number of different techniques atomic number 18 used to grab the audience’s attention and to establish trust and credibleness (Erwin, 2014: 104). One technique that is used by the media is the use of go quotations from beat sources. This makes the reader believe the stratum world t aged(prenominal) and is often used as a powerful motivator to encourage the reader to act, for example, by giving money or purchasing something (MLP, 2014: 1). Where direct quotations atomic number 18 used, it is more(prenominal) likely that the message being conveyed volition be successful received as the audience forget believe what is being said. such(prenominal) techniques be referred to as the â€Å"language of persuasion” and argon essential media literacy skills (Changing Minds, 2013: 1). This was recognised by Lippmann who believed that persuasion had become a â€Å"self-conscious fraud and a fixedness organ of popular government (Denton and Kuypers, 2007: 1). Persuasion is so a vogue of creating consent from individuals ab bring out a particular premise and is cap equal to(p) of modifying governmental converses in a very influential port. Unless communions ar persuasive, it is doubtful that they go away be strong since persuasion is the main communicating tool that is ingest by the media. Governments use persuasion as a operator of obtaining consent from the mess ages being conveyed, to a fault cognize as policy-making communication. policy-making communication is considered to shake the following four elements; 1) short-term orientation; 2) ground upon specific objectives; 3) mainly mediated; and 4) audience centred. policy-making communication is non exclusive to the policy-making mankind as non- semipolitical actors too use this type of communication as a way of communicating messages to the populace. This is by and large done by organisations that flummox a political objective such as; non-governmental organisations (nongovernmental organization’s).\r\nAn nongovernmental organization is an organisation that is separate and distinct from governments and profitable patronagees. Although nongovernmental organization’s can be funded by governments and businesses, they atomic number 18 commonly set up by ordinary citizens to farther an agenda (Welch, 2000: 1). Whilst the agenda’s of numerous nongovernme ntal organization’s pull up stakes differ, the methods of communication that ar used leave alone be similar in that they forget all prove to usefully communicate their objectives to the targeted audience. The particular objective of most nongovernmental organization’s is to as authorized that human rights ar being fully protected. Although nongovernmental organization’s from different jurisdictions leave not unceasingly soak up the same goals, they go out still be structured in a similar manner. This is because nongovernmental organization’s slackly seek to kick upstairs human rights worldwide, which requires them to co-operate with governments and the United Nations (Wong, 2012: 37). nongovernmental organization’s argon overly crucial in assist to bring universal interest matters before the courts (Wadham, 2001: 1). The mess hall media is a reclaimable tool that take ons political communications of nongovernmental organizati on’s to be effectuated, yet companionable, cultural and psychological problems are usually associated with media content and use (Perse, 2001: 1). It was stressed by Young that modern union engulfs its members done the media, cultivation and mesh inside the market smudgeplace (Young, 1999: 82). The media is capable of articulating judgements by adopting various ideologic approaches. It has been said by Croteau and Hoynes that the media do not promote a singular familiarity of political theory and instead communicate a number of different ideological perceptions (Croteau and Hoynes, 2012: 154). They noted that sociable ideologies are more domineering of hostelry than mainstream ideologies because of the fact that population pay as much attention to bridle-path scenes, hovictimization and clothing as they do to the interpretation when watching international news (Thompson, 1995: 176). Arguably, it is clear from these assertions that the media is exceedingly power ful in influencing the minds of individuals, which is why it is a take of communication that is commonly used by nongovernmental organization’s to further their agenda’s. The media is capable of shaping an audiences subjectivity through the representation of ideological notion’s. NGO’s in that respectby benefit from victimisation media techniques to persuade their targeted audience to act in a certain manner.\r\nThe media is extremely powerful in persuading the lieus, beliefs and doingss of inn through the use of propaganda. Propaganda is a form of communication that influences an audience to act establish on a particular agenda. Propaganda is used as a subject matter of generating emotional responses to messages that are produced to influence loving attitudes towards a particular cause or position. NGO’s often use propaganda to fulfil their objectives and are indeed considered effective cultural propaganda disseminators (Cull et al; 200 3: 193). NGO’s have been considered political science of the deplorable on the solid ground that they represent political ideologies (Karim, 2001: 92). semipolitical political orientation is a set of ideas which represent the objectives, expectations and consummations of a political party. A broad range of belief systems exist inside different political parties and have generally been acquired from doctrines, ideals, myths, principles and social movements. Ideology is a system that is made up of values and beliefs â€Å"regarding the various institutions and surgical operationes of decree that is accepted as fact or truth by a group of host” (Sargent, 2008: 2). governmental political theory so comprises the views of political parties on how the world should be. This allows political parties to share social values (Easton, 1971: 129) and determine what is considered an ‘ideal’ world. thither are different views and opinions of ideological the ory, though ideology is more often than not operate by competing groups in society who strive for hegemony (Hall, 1997: 13). Hegemony happens when the most dominant in society promotes, through the media and culture, a set of ideals that members of that society essential aline to ( eitheran, 2004: 6). This is beneficial for NGO’s who use the media to establish an ideological perception of the rights in which they are trying to protect. In deciding whether certain behaviours conform to society, the set of ideals that have been constituted within that society bequeath deficiency to be considered by the media when deciding what messages need to be conveyed. Many believe that this is unfair and toughened as ideology only serves the interests of one element of society over all other segments (Curra, 2000: 6). This prejudices many split of society as certain groups may not benefit from the open ideals that are created. As pointed out by Brown et al; ideology may only b e beneficial to certain ethnic groups, genders or religions (Brown et al; 2010: 9). This does not leave behind an accurate reflection of the whole of society and whilst ideals are necessary in helping people to notice what is right and wrong, it seems unacceptable to segregate certain separate of society. This may, however, be necessary when protecting the rights of certain individuals. Political ideologies are subject to further critique on the basis that they do not consider the require of modern society (Stankiewicz, 2012: 408), yet as pointed out by Selinger; â€Å"There is no politics without ideology” (Selinger, 1975: 99). In effect, this bug outs to demonstrate that all political communications pass on have some element of ideology as moral judgements pull up stakes be contained within them. Effectively, the objectives of NGO’s will be based upon ideological beliefs and will mostly have a political objective. An example of this can be seen in relation to t he United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), which is an NGO that provides humanitarian and development assistance to mothers and children in develop countries. The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) created UNICEF on the eleventh December 1946 to provide food and healthcare to children that had been counter diverge by World War II.\r\nAlthough UNICEF is not operated by the government, it like many other NGO’s largely relies upon governmental shop and political communications. NGO’s have, for some time, relied upon the mass media to expose violations of human-rights and encourage governments to put pressure on those found to be abusing them (Thrall et al; 2014: 3). This is intended to discourage human rights abuses from winning place and to help the perpetrators be put to ripeice. The potential of this is arguable, though it seems as though greater choke off is being acquired by the likes of UNICEF as a egress of this. Since the advancement of moder n technology UNICEF is now able to establish new communication strategies for channeling breeding politics via the internet (Chadwick and Phillip, 2008: 3). It is arguable whether the strategies that are being undertaken by UNICEF are effective in persuading audiences to support their cause, though it seems likely given UNICEF’s use of the media. The media is largely proficient in influencing society of certain ideological perceptions through television computer programs, newspapers, magazines, films and tuner create by mental acts (Long and Wall, 2009; 285). These forms of communication are used in a way that manipulates societal values and beliefs and will continue to influence the ways in which we think close to things whether consciously or subconsciously (Kenix, 2010: 1). none only does the media send out ideological messages to the public but media systems have also been intertwined into society’s ideological cloth. This suck ups the power of the media in shaping individuals values and beliefs within society. UNICEF’s campaigns are mainly in the form of mass media, radio programmes, posters, street plays and localised outreach (UNICEF, 2014: 1). Because of this, a wider range of support will be acquired. UNICEF is reaching out to a broader audience, which will generate a massive union of support and financing that would not otherwise be available. Arguably, it is imperative that the media techniques being used in UNICEF’s communications schema are effective in helping to shape ideological views on the rights of children. UNICEF is an cheer of children’s rights and so it is necessary for UNICEF to communicate how these rights are being violated and what protections need to be in place. This will help UNICEF to gain support and the message UNICEF is trying to put across will be better received by the public.\r\ncommunicatings system \r\nThe communications strategy of UNICEF is vital in modify human develop ment and avoiding missed opportunities. An ineffective communications strategy will generally yield poor results and stifle the development of UNICEF (UNDP, 2014: 1). UNICEF’s targeted audience will not receive the message that is being portrayed. This will prevent UNICEF from developing, which will impact its success.. Effective communications are important skills NGO’s need to survive and be successful (KDID, 2013: 28). To make an impact, UNICEF will thus be required to use effective means of communication to go over that their views and opinions are heard. In doing so, they will most likely suit a number of difficult challenges because of the fact that it has become progressively difficult to deliver to society complex humanitarian crises. It is also difficult to explain to society who is entangled in certain humanitarian crisis’ because of how widespread they generally are (ICRC, 2005: 673). A huge amount of NGO’s currently strive for media attent ion, thereby highlighting the need to have effective communication strategies in place (Thrall et al; 2014: 19). UNICEF must adopt a coherent and credible approach when conveying public communication so that its message can be heard. It has been said that in dictate to understand political communication, one must understand how consent is created (Denton and Kuypers, 2007: 1). UNICEF will thus be required to communicate messages in a way that allows consent to be obtained, which will need to be included within the communications strategy of UNICEF. A good communications strategy will help to certify good organisational stigmatisation and positioning, which will help to attract staff, donors and volunteers (KDID, 2013: 28).\r\nSuccessful stigmatisation through media communications will put an NGO in a desirable position within the community, which will help to get support and belief from the public. This will require NGO’s to be completely transparent so that the messages in which they are trying to put across can be understandably communicated (Thrall et al; 2014: 19). Unless UNICEF adopts a transparent and clear approach, it will be difficult to gain support and belief from the public (Lilleker, 2006: 4). Public support is, however, crucial to the implementation of potpourri (Rabinowitz, 2013: 3). Without public support, it is doubtful that UNICEF would be as successful as they are. It is debatable what the trump out techniques for gaining public support are, though an effective communications strategy that takes into account UNICEF’s agenda and identifies points that will require persuasive communication will most likely prove successful. It is important that the communications strategy identifies the approaches and tools that are needed to make a particular event more effective. In developing a communications strategy, it first needs to be established what UNICEF is trying to achieve. Subsequently, it will then need to be considered wha t communications objectives will most likely support the objectives of the project (McManus, 1994: 58). The communications objectives of UNICEF will be those that are capable of being reached through various means of communications. Such objectives will also need a target audience. This will require UNICEF to consider who they are trying to reach. In reaching out to the target audience, UNICEF will need to develop appropriate messages which highlight the relevant issues; the actions that needs to be taken by the target audience; and the benefits of such action (KDID, 2013: 28). at one time this has been done, UNICEF will then have to consider how these messages will be delivered. Different methods of communication will be considered depending upon the type of event that is being promoted such as; media conferences, social media, interviews, marketing, advertisements and news stories.\r\nGiven that UNICEF targets underdeveloped countries, it is likely that difficulties will be faced when considering the political objectives of various countries. Political communications are likely to pull up stakes from one country to another, which will create a number of problems. An effective communications strategy will seek to mention these difficulties, though it will uphold arguable whether they will prove sufficient in achieving certain objectives (Thrall et al; 2014: 19). In Africa, for example, the media seems to control those in power by reporting to citizens. Whilst this demands a stage of institutional independence from the political system, it has been said that there is actually a â€Å"clear interdependence betwixt the media and political systems” (Windeck, 2014: 17). Information from political systems is usually interchange for coverage in the media system and vice versa. The media consequently rely heavily on the supply of pronounceation from politics, whilst political bodies rely on the media to spread their messages and objectives (Windeck, 20 14: 17). Political communication is an important tool in the political process, and will continue to influence politics. In effect, the political communications of certain countries will be driven by cultural and political factors, which may be difficult to overcome. Female genital mutilation is one line of business that UNICEF continues to campaign against, but is faced with many political objections from countries where FGM is prevalent; Asia, the Middle East and some parts of Africa (Gaber, 2007: 219). UNICEF are resultantly required to implement a strategy that is capable of strengthening the political commitment of governments.\r\nUNICEF’s Communications Strategy\r\nThere are threesome components of communication that are used by UNICEF to garner support and funding. These are; advocacy, social militarisation and behaviour change communication (UNICEF, 2008: 7). Advocacy is used to inform and motivate leadership so that a supportive environment can be created. This w ill allow the objectives and development goals of the program to be achieved. Social militarization seeks to engage support and participation from various institutions, social and religious groups, and community networks. It is intended that the development objectives of UNICEF will be maintained through the use of social mobilization and that greater demand will be generated. Behaviour change communication involves face to face discussions with a number of individuals and groups to motivate, inform, plan and problem-solve. It is anticipated that by using this technique, the objectives of UNICEF can be met (UNICEF, 2008: 7). Various abstract models are used by UNICEF to implement communication including ACADA, P-Process and COMBI. The ACADA (Assessment, Communication Analysis, Design, Action) model is frequently used by UNICEF to use systematically-gathered data to link communications strategies to development problems. The P-Process model, developed by The Johns Hopkins Bloomber g School of Public health/Center for Communication Programs (CCP), is used for the strategic think of evidence based communication programmes and contains the following volt steps; 1) analysis, 2) strategic design, 3) development and testing, 4) implementation and monitoring, and 5) evaluation and re-planning (UNICEF, 2008: 7).\r\nThe COMBI model uses a ten step process for communication planning, which are; 1) overall goal, 2) behavioural results/objectives, 3) situational market analysis, 4) results strategy, 5) plan of action, 6) management structure, 7) monitoring, 8) impact appraisal, 9) scheduling, and 10) budget (UNICEF, 2008: 7). All three of these models seek to establish an effective communications strategy by analysing the different approaches that can be taken and considering the necessary steps needed. Analysis is inbuilt to an effective communications strategy as it will enable any underlying issues to be identified and thereby dealt with accordingly. UNICEF unde rtakes a comprehensive analysis comprising of; the situation, the programme, the participants, the behaviours, and the communication impart (UNICEF, 2008: 7). The situation instalment describes the issues that are being addressed by UNICEF such as; child poverty, disease, malnutrition and trafficking. This is based upon data that has been collected from local knowledge, programme documents and research. The data highlights the underlying social and cultural issues by demonstrating what changes need to be made to social structures and practices. The programme section is designed to establish where the objectives of UNICEF can be achieved by communication. The participant section establishes what people are required to achieve UNICEF’s objectives. The behaviour section focuses on setting behavioural objectives and analysing the behaviours or practices that have been selected for change. Finally, the communication take section considers the available communication channels tha t are applicable in achieving the objectives. at one time the analysis has been completed, UNICEF will have identified the participants, behaviours and channels of communications that are needed to encourage audience participation and accomplish its goals (UNICEF, 2008: 7).\r\nIn order to ensure that the objectives of UNICEF are being met by changing the attitude and behaviour of individuals, knowledge alone will not be sufficient. Instead, a supportive environment will also need to be established (UNICEF, 2008: 37). Therefore, whilst the communications strategy of UNICEF will need to instil knowledge into the community so that support can be acquired, a supportive environment will also need to be created. This will involve creating policies that mitigate access to services and by using leaders that help to promote social and behaviour change amongst various members of society. Resources will also need to be allocated for the programme activities that are to be carried out and o ptimistic change will be effectuated by using a combination of communication techniques. UNICEF believes that communication goes way beyond providing information to the targeted audience and instead show that communication is vital for development (Dijkzeul and Moke, 2005: 673). UNICEF has therefore set up a development programme, also know as C4D, which aims to engage communities through understanding people’s beliefs, values and social and cultural norms (Lenni and Tacchi, 2013: 16). This is achieved from comprehend to adults and children, identifying issues and working out solutions. This is considered a two way process that allows individuals to share knowledge and ideas through the use of various communication techniques that empower communities to take action in improving the lives of children (Lenni and Tacchi, 2013: 16). Advocacy is one technique UNICEF engages in its communications strategy, which is the â€Å"act of supporting a cause to produce a desired changeà ¢â‚¬Â (Save the Children, 2014: 1). Advocacy is capable of influencing governments to effect change by communicating with the media, elected officials and influential leaders.\r\nAdvocacy is able to encourage leaders to implement various changes such as; legal reform, policy decisions, addressing social and political barriers, and altering funding priorities. Advocacy efforts being used by UNICEF occur at global, national and sub-level and seek to influence the decisions of policy makers as well as political and social leaders. This is done through the unveiling of an enabling policy and legislative environment and by allocating resources appropriately to create and sustain social fault (UNICEF, 2011: 1). For example, in 2010 when polio resurfaced in the Democratic republic of Congo, there existed a lack of awareness of the disease and how it could be prevented. Influential leaders, such as Marco Kiabuta, did not believe that the vaccination of polio was necessary. After a numbe r of debates with community mobilisers and leaders Kiabuta came to realise just how vital a vaccination was. This example demonstrates how effective communication techniques can make a huge difference in implementing change and possibly saving(a) lives (UNICEF, 2011: 1). Advocacy is used by UNICEF to target political, business and social leaders at national and local levels. It is not used simply to create mass awareness but is also used as a means of generating change and leading to a specific action that is to be taken (UNICEF, 2010: 20). UNICEF uses advocacy to inform and motivate appropriate leaders to create a supportive environment by changing polices, speaking out on critical issues, allocating resources and initiating public discussion. Communication is a powerful tool, which is why it is important for various media techniques to be adopted by NGO’s such as UNICEF. Social mobilisation is another method of communication that is used by UNICEF to enlist participants, c ommunity networks, and religious groups to strengthen participation in various activities. This helps to engage and motivate partners and associate to raise awareness of UNICEF’s development objectives through face-to-face dialogue. Partners and allies subsequently work in concert to target audiences and convey certain messages. Social mobilisation is used as a way to allay change through a range of players that are engaged in interrelated and complementary efforts (UNICEF, 2012: 1). An example of this can be seen in relation to the training community health workers in Madagascar received from UNICEF. The health workers were trained to provide outreach to families on various issues including, softwood washing, vaccinating children, and not defecating in the open (UNICEF, 2012: 1). This is clearly an effective communication technique that is used by UNICEF as it allows certain individuals to be trained up so that they can pass their knowledge onto others. This has a domino like effect and will enable the views of UNICEF to be conveyed to a wider audience than that which would have been likely through advertisements alone. Social mobilisation is therefore an effective way of spreading messages to targeted audiences and helping to achieve the objectives of UNICEF, which is to provide assistance to mothers and children in underdeveloped countries. Behaviour change communication is another method that is used to address knowledge, attitudes and practices that are linked to programme goals. This is done by providing participants with â€Å"relevant information and motivation through decipherable strategies, using an audience-appropriate mix of interpersonal, group and mass media channels and participatory methods” (UNICEF/INDA, 2012, 1). Behaviour change communication strategies focus on the individual to effect change. In order for behavioural changes to happen on a bigger scale, social change communication needs to be employed. This technique he lps to define and address social influences in flavour and is currently being employed by UNICEF through the Social Ecological Model framework” (UNICEF/INDA, 2012, 1). The media techniques that are currently being used by UNICEF do appear effective in helping to persuade audiences to provide support. The more UNICEF does to spread its message, the more successful UNICEF will be in achieving its aims.\r\nThe Meena Communication Initiative in South Asia gives an example of how mass media and interpersonal communication is used to enhance the egotism and self-worth of children by enabling them to become familiar with life skills that are essential empowerment tools. The programme is primarily school based and is centred around a nine-year old girl called Meena who seeks to fight against the stigma that surrounds HIV/ support (UNICEF/INDA, 2012, 1). A radio station called ‘Meena Radio’ was launched in 2010 to communicate with children, their parents, educators and c ommunity leaders. This provides an effective means of communication and provides a platform for UNICEF’s political beliefs to be heard. It is intended that the radio station’s audience will be persuaded to act so that the voices of children and communities can be heard through the power of communication. This helps to promote child survival, development, protection and participation (UNICEF, 2014: 1). It is clear that UNICEF uses a number of different media techniques in its communications strategy to achieve its objectives. Without the use of such techniques, the voices of children and communities would not be heard and UNICEF’s message would not be delivered to its intended audience. It has been said that UNICEF â€Å"raises considerable funds and carries out strong communication on its own through its national committees, press centre and media team” (Dijkzeul and Moke, 2005: 683). This signifies the splendour of having an effective communications str ategy is in place as it can generate a evidentiary amount of funding that would not otherwise be available. UNICEF also uses high profile figures to be its ambassadors who have been considered a highly effective in persuading society (Stromback, 2011: 42).\r\nConclusion \r\nOverall, an effective communication strategy in an important tool for helping governmental and non-governmental organisations communicate effectively to meet core objectives. Given that UNICEF relies on voluntary donations from members of the public, government departments, charitable trusts and event organisers, it is important that they are capable of successfully communicating their objectives. In doing so, they will be required to persuade or encourage their audiences to provide support or funding so that UNICEF’s end goals can be achieved. Given that UNICEF uses a number of different media techniques in its communications strategy, the approach that is currently being undertaken does appear workable. The media is a powerful tool in the art of persuasion, which is what UNICEF needs in order to survive. The use of media techniques will help to raise awareness of UNICEF’s objectives and obtain humanitarian assistance. It is unlikely that such assistance would be obtained without the use of various media techniques, which is why UNICEF’s communications strategy does appear largely effective.\r\nReferences\r\nAllan, S. (2004), unuseds Culture. Bukingham: exonerated University Press.\r\nChanging Minds. (2013). Persuasive Language, [Online], getable: http://changingminds.org/techniques/language/persuasive/persuasive.htm [07 July 2014].\r\nChadwick, A. and Phillip, H. (2008). 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