Saturday, August 31, 2019

Best kept secret of the church

What is the â€Å"best kept secret† of the church? Why? According to the clip, the â€Å"best kept secret' of the church is the Church's Catholic Social Teachings. It is God's special love for the poor and called God's people to a covenant of love and justice. I think it is the best kept secret of the church because the church has helped the poor in many ways and because of authoritative statements-?whether from church or government-?have less attraction today than acts of authentic witness.Also is it will also make social sues which will make the Catholic church receive not so good comments so they do not let other people know the secret of the church. And doing good doesn't need to be rewarded by other people, but to be rewarded by God alone. 2. Give at least 5 issues presented by the clip. A. Poverty because many Filipinos are â€Å"kapok† and uneducated b. Concentration of Wealth Because the poor thinks they are poor, they remain poor. C. Environmental Abuse The co ntinuity of illegal logging that makes the Earth worse. D. Inequality in land distributionThere are many informal settlers in our country because they don't have their own land and they can't buy because they don't have that kind of money. E. Social inequality The government doesn't entertain the poor people because they know that they won't gain anything from them, and the higher people or rich people help but only a few times. 3. Chi arch responses/actions on the given issues. In our recent times, the church response to this by having an outreach program or sometimes ask for donations to offer foods for those who are in deed. B.Concentration of Wealth Because the poor doesn't think they can survive and have a better life if they work, they don't work. But then the church gives seminar to help those people to carry on with their lives so they don't have any more excuses. C. Environmental Abuse Due to the continuation of the doings of the illegal loggers, the church and its people d ecided to have a checkpoint and the people were there to secure their place and to reduce the risk of the earth being destroyed wherein due to his action they were able to capture illegal loggers and to take back the logs they got.Also the priests help in planting trees, which is also a good thing. D. Inequality in land distribution The church tried to help and give the poor people voice and maybe encouraged them to appeal to the court about their current situation of the land where they are staying now. Another is that the church provided the church to be the place where the people can have their meeting. E.Social inequality When inside the church, there are no social inequality shown wherein all the people are together and are happy with being together and they all share foods to eat and it helped them improve their social relations. 4. Do you agree or not in the church's doings? Why? Yes agree. Because the church are doing their best to help or to provide proper action in regards to those situation and it need not to be publicized. Doing something good does not need someone to commend you but to make the other person feel good and to know that God with reward you as well is what really matters.

Friday, August 30, 2019

How Alcohol Affects the Family

A family is an institution with closely knit members of a household who are related by marriage adoption or by birth. These are people who have a strong relationship mutual concern for each other such that when one gets hurt, the other members also feel hurt. It is in this institution that socialization takes place.A family acts as a shelter for the members because this is where they experience unconditional love. Members do not have to work to earn love or to work for their basic needs to be met. It is a place that members can go back to when all is lost and still be cared for.Democracy is first experienced in the family because every one is listened to and every member works for the best interest of the other. Additionally, members of a family grow according to certain values upheld by the institution and as a result can be said to be very influential to an individuals personality.Therefore every family member has roles and obligations that when disrupted can make a family dysfunct ional. Alcohol abuse is one of the factors that causes disruption of the family and threatens its stability.Alcohol abuse has adverse effects on the members in that it deprives them of the basics of the family. This is because most alcohol abusers are violent and often are the ones who initiate fights. The violence when brought home is characterized by such incidences as wife battering, beating of children and financial constrains in the home as and even separation or divorce. Various members of a family can become abusers of alcohol. It can be the mother, the father or even the children. The impact of alcohol abuse usually varies depending on which member is involved.In instances where the parents are involved, the family hurts financially because in most of the cases they are the ones who are bread winners. As mentioned earlier their priorities change and the amount of money that is usually allocated to family consumption, decreases. Financial strain also could set in as a result of the accidents that come with drunkenness e.g. a road accident that occurs because of drunken driving, costs of treatment for a drunken driver who has sustained injuries and compensation for broken crockery and other wares.According to children of alcohol dependent parents are usually anxious and suffer from depression. They also stand a risk of having mental and physical problems. Additionally, they have a very high probability of also becoming addicts of alcohol and other substances or drugs. Statistics have shown that most adolescent alcoholics have parents who are addicted to alcohol. Children from parents who are addicted have a lot of money spent on their health and welfare.This is because they are sometimes subjected to abuse that would warrant their being taken to hospital. Increased health problems of family members create a financial burden to the family up to a level where there no longer exists family cohesion.The role of the parents is also compromised because they ge t to levels where they cannot instill discipline on their children. Alcohol dependent parents whose cognitive ability has been impaired because of alcohol cannot be at a position to follow up on how their children are doing at home or school and the latter become their own masters.The outcome is children who are delinquent and a threat to security in the society. Further it becomes one factor behind the family disintegrating as they start doing their own things without any guidance. In other cases the alcoholic parents are not able to perform their duties and the children take up their roles.This can get to a level where it gets confusing for the children because they have to take up other roles, i.e. that of being children and that of parents. The family in such an instance becomes dysfunctional because families fail to undertake their obligations of taking charge or leading the family. Children in such a family tend to take up the habit of dealing with issues under the influence o f another substance such that they don’t believe that they can make decisions when sober.This can be explained by the fact that children look up to their parents who have a great influence on them. Children regard their parents as heroes and may conclude in their minds that the consumption of alcohol is a heroic gesture thereby admiring it. This may prompt them to try taking the alcohol in secret so that their alcoholic activity starts at a very early age.

Principles of Communication in Adult Social Care Settings Essay

1.Identify the different reasons why people communicate (1.1.1) People communicate in many different ways often to share information, emotions, thoughts and feelings. People also communicate to learn by asking for information and instructions such as how to do a certain task or asking someone for directions. People will often share emotion through communication like how they are feeling at the time or telling them about a recent life event. People communicate about thoughts and suggestions. Communication can be used to share reassurance and to understand and to be understood. People make, build and sustain relationships through communication. People share knowledge and receive knowledge through communication. 2.Explain how communication affects relationships in an adult social care setting (1.1.2) Communication can build, sustain and effect relationships in an adult social care setting. Communication can develop relationships and build confidence with adults in social care settings. It can be used to give advice, help, information and instructions to help individuals, staff and family members. Communication is used to benefit relationships and maintain safety and consistency. 3.Compare ways to establish the communication and language needs, wishes and preferences of an individual (2.2.1) Communication can be established specifically for an individual by directly talking with that individual. Receiving clear and correct information from that individual. Information is sometimes available for certain individuals on how to communicate with them. For instance someone who was hard of hearing may want you to communicate slowly and clearly for that individual to be able to lip read what you are saying or by sign language, communication through the hands. Individuals that are in a care setting would have care notes and support plans which would have detailed information on how to communicate with that person. Communication can be gained by an individual’s body language, people study other people’s body language and can gain information about how that particular individual is feeling, their specific needs and any help that individual may require. Some individuals may not be able to give communication clearly and verbally so may only communicate using their body, stance and posture. You can gain information about an individual’s needs, wishes and preferences through colleagues, key people and people who know the individual best. 4.Describe the factors to consider when promoting effective communication (2.2.2) Factors to consider when promoting effective communication are dependent on situation, individual and circumstances. When promoting effective communication you should always consider clear, correct and relative communication. Individual circumstances should always be taken into consideration also, am I communicating in the right tone of voice? Am I communicating in a way that the person I’m communicating with will understand? Am I communicating in the correct method? There are many factors to consider when promoting effective communication. Like not communicating in the same way to an adult as you would a child. Communicating in a more simple way so that the certain individual would understand, and not feel that you are communicating in a way that may come across as negative or derogatory. Communicating in a quieter tone of voice if communicating about a personal or sympathetic situation. 5.Describe a range of communication methods and styles to meet individual needs (2.2.3) Communication methods that can differ depending on individual needs are age. Am I talking to an adult or a child? You would communicate with a child in a different way to what you would an adult. If you spoke to an adult in the same way you did a child then that adult may feel like you are being disrespectful to them. Does the person I’m talking to have specific needs? Do they have learning difficulties? If they did you may have to talk in a slower and clearer manor to help them understand and to make sure they can take on all the information. Are they hard of hearing? Possibly talking louder and slowly? Talking directly to their face so the individual could read your lips, possibly using hands to sign or pointing to relative objects to help communication. Can the individual communicate verbally at all? If not then you may have to read their body language to gain a certain level of communication. The individual maybe making noise? Does the noise sound happy or distressful? Some individuals who cannot communicate verbally through speaking may make noise to signal to another person if they are upset or happy. If the person was laughing, high pitched or chuckling this would appear that the individual was happy whereas if the individual was making groaning, low and stressful noises this would appear that the individual is unhappy or agitated. Individuals who can’t use talking to communicate may be able to use pictures to communicate. They may be able to use a range of pictures to show emotions, feelings and needs. They may show a picture of food to signal they are hungry or a face to show the emotion or how they are feeling. 6.Explain why it is important to respond to an individual’s reactions when communicating (2.2.4) It is important to gauge an individual’s reactions at all times when communicating. This can be done by a person’s facial expressions. Does the individual seem shocked, upset or angry to what has been communicated? Does communication need to be done in a softer tone of voice or in a way that is more reassuring to that individual? Is the subject or matter that is being communicated about upsetting or making the individual unhappy? Possibly a change of subject might be more beneficial to the individuals mood or feelings. Does the individual appear confused? This maybe because the correct method of communication is not being used or isn’t in a way that the individual understands. Communication would break down if response wasn’t being met to an individual’s reactions. If communicating in a certain way kept making an individual upset or angry then that individual would simply stop communicating or become even angrier or upset which would break down relationships and communication. An individual who appeared to be in a low or sad mood may react well to reassurance, sympathy or a compliment. Whereas negative communication would only worsen that individuals mood and again would break down communication and relations. Reaction is key to when we are communicating. 7.Explain how individuals from different backgrounds may use, or interpret communication methods in different ways (3.3.1) Indivduals from different backgrounds will use many different ways of communicating. An individual from a background of gangs may use slang and hand gestures as a way of communicating. To another individual from the same background this would be fine but for an individual from a entirely different background this may come across as rude and/or abrupt. Individuals may not talk/communicate in the same way to their friends as they would their boss or a work colleague. For example talking to a child you would use simple communication methods. If you were to use simple ways of communication with an adult this may come across as disrespectful and be taken the wrong way. Communicating with a loved one would be understanding, loving and respectful however if you adopted this same communication method with a member of the public or someone that you weren’t familiar with may seem quite odd and strange. 8.Identify barriers to effective communication (3.3.2) Barriers to effective communication may be the use of jargon, unfamiliar or over complicated terms and emotional barriers. Lack of attention and interest can often be a barrier of communication also. Physical disabilities can also be a barrier when communicating such as hearing problems or speech difficulties. Sometimes language barriers or a difference in accents can pose as a barrier of communication. Expectations can lead to false assumptions or stereotyping which may then become a barrier to communication. Cultural differences can sometimes become a barrier when communicating. Different cultures have many different ways of communicating as do cultures have many varied ways of showing emotions and feelings. 9.Explain how to overcome barriers to communication (3.3.3) Overcoming barriers in communication requires assessing the barriers that need overcoming. Communication should always be in a clear and easy to understand form. Clear and simple terms should always be promoted when communicating. Use of slang and words that are dependent on an individual’s background should be avoided. Concentration should always be with whom you are communicating with, communication that is not concentrated on can often be confused or misunderstood. Different opinions and views should always be respected when communicating also. Not respecting people’s views an opinions will be a major barrier to communication and one that won’t be overcome until all views are understood and respected. 10.Describe strategies that can be used to clarify misunderstandings (3.3.4) Misunderstandings can often arise whilst communicating. Sometimes the message needs to be said or prevailed in a different way. Perhaps the tone needs to change, or the messages style. The language you have used may need to be simplified. Maybe a phone conversation has been unsatisfactory in some way, but a face to face meeting would help to establish better communication. It may be necessary to change the situation and or environment. Maybe a noisy environment has caused misunderstanding maybe somewhere quieter would establish better communication. In certain circumstances it is ok to ask if you have been understood, or to relay communication to certify that you have understood the message that is being communicated. Sometimes when communicating by phone people will ask one and other â€Å"Can you hear me ok?† this will often prevent misunderstandings before they occur by establishing that both parties can communicate clearly. Allowing time for communication can also clarify misunderstandings. Much communication is done whilst we are busy or engaging in other things. To make sure communication has been received and understood it should be allowed time and concentration. Sometimes it is important to take responsibility for a misunderstanding and say you are sorry. An apology can help to restore confidence and allow for the relationship to continue building on a firmer foundation. 11.Explain how to access extra support or services to enable individuals to communicate effectively (3.3.5) Support is available via local authorities and services, such as the NHS and adult social services departments. Help is also available from national charities, such the National Autistic Society for those with autism. These can be accessed by phone or internet. Services such as Makaton are also available; Makaton is a system that uses signs and symbols alongside speech to help people with learning and/or communication difficulties to communicate. Makaton is taught to individuals with learning and/or communication difficulties as an effective way of communication. Speech and language therapists often known as SLT’s can often assess speech and communication difficulties in people of all ages. SLT’s can mainly be accessed through an individual’s GP. 12.Explain the meaning of the term ‘confidentiality’ (4.4.1) Confidentiality is a requirement to keep personal information private and only share it with people who need to know. Information that is spoken, written and electronically kept about individuals maybe needed to be kept confidential and only shared with certain people. 13.Describe ways to maintain confidentiality in day-to-day communication (4.4.2) Confidentially can be maintained on a day to day basis by only speaking about certain information with certain people. For example an individual’s information may be spoken with to a GP or family member. Confidentiality can also be maintained by making sure access to electronic information is only accessible by certain people. A way to maintain this is by keeping computer passwords safe and computers locked and only sharing passwords with people who should be allowed to see this information. Sharing confidential information should always be done in a private environment where the information will not be overheard or interrupted. Records such as personal notes, reports and letters should always be kept in a safe locked place and keys should never be left unattended. Confidential matters are generally not talked about over the telephone unless the person can be positively identified. Confidential information should never be left in an answerphone message as this is left in an un safe way which is easy for the wrong person to hear. 14.Describe the potential tension between maintaining an individual’s confidentiality and disclosing concerns to agreed others (4.4.3) Sometimes information that is asked to be or normally confidential needs to be shared with others when there is a concern for that persons welfare and/or safety this can cause tension because the information may have been shared trustingly and have been requested not to be shared but it has to be disclosed because there is a risk to that person’s safety. 15.Explain how and when to seek advice about confidentiality (4.4.4) You can seek advice from your manager about confidentiality. You would do this when you are unsure about anything to do with confidentiality for example if you thought someone was talking to the wrong people about confidential matters that should not be being discussed or weather you were unsure that talking to someone about a certain situation would break an individual’s confidentiality. Read more:  Describe Strategies to Clarify Misunderstandings

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Responsibilities of Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words - 1

Responsibilities of Management - Essay Example The organizations should recognize the importance of equality in workplace, which motivates the employees to improve their performance. Management is the art of getting things done by the people for achieving the desired objectives. What a manager does is also called management. It is the process of planning, organizing, directing, staffing, co-coordinating, reporting and budgeting. The levels of management are of three types. They are top level management, middle level management and lower level management. The main responsibility of a manager is to control the entire organization. The important responsibilities are encouraging employees, making sure that employees achieve the organizational objectives, controlling the activities and looking after the employees, making sure that resources are used in the best possible manner. That means usages of resources in most productive way, minimizing waste, and making sure of efficient use of time. The human resources manager plays a very important role in organizational hierarchy in between top level management to bottom level management. The important responsibilities of h uman resource manager are as follows. The human resource manager controls the employees and he is responsible for monitoring, guiding, and encouraging them in the best possible manner. He provides very good support to the selection of staff who meets the organizational standard. To sustain the competitive advantages the following factors should be maintained. They are performance management, providing training, reward, and recognition to staff, retention of employees, implementation and supervision of human resource policies and making sure of availability of human resources to accomplish the organizational objectives. â€Å"Stress is the emotional and physical strain caused by our response to pressure from the outside world. Common stress reactions include tension, irritability, inability to

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

The areas of the hydrosphere, the biosphere and the lithosphere Essay

The areas of the hydrosphere, the biosphere and the lithosphere - Essay Example Energy gains, on the other hand, are highly influenced by human activities such as building of irrigation and dams. Water, in the form of snow and rain, falls on earth to be absorbed by bodies of water and plant fields (Bharatdwaj, 2009). Gabler, Petersen & Sack (2011) explained that when water reaches the subsurface, it goes first to the zone of aeration where air occupies most space. Water then consumes the space in the zone of saturation which is topped by water table (Gabler et al., 2011). Groundwater wells are designed to alter nature’s way of keeping water beneath the surface (Bharatdwaj, 2009). Cones of depression in the water table evolved from constant extraction of water from wells. When several cones of depression meet, other nearby shallow wells runs out of water (Gabler et al., 2011). Another indispensable process that sustains life is the food web. It is a series of food chains interlinked with one another. The food chains’ prequel is the primary producers supplying the essential energy for food (Bharatdwaj, 2009). Food chain is facilitated by primary consumers that feed on plants, the secondary consumers that feed on the primary consumers and then there are the decomposers that feed on what is left in each process of the cycle (Bharatdwaj, 2009). A clear cut example of a food chain is when grass was feed on by a cow; consequently the cow is eaten by man. In the study of these organisms, a biologist focuses on the processes that propels life itself, whereas, the focus of a geographer is to identify ways to preserve and maintain the Earth’s surface and resources. The diversified community of plants and animals that cover a specific area and own a particular climate are termed as biomes (Kaufman & Marsh, 2012). Biomes are like zoogeographic regions w hich aim to classify the distribution of Earth. But unlike biomes, zoogeographic regions

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

China Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

China - Essay Example Senior persons are expected to begin the introductions unlike in American culture. Chinese gift-giving is made with both hands and gifts but Chinese people usually reject gifts in the first occasion as a show of politeness. However, such gifts should not be of white or black color since it is a symbol of death or bad tragedy according to the culture. American culture on gift-giving is flexible since people can send their gifts through posts even without well established relationships (Alon 56). Chinese culture is male dominated unlike American culture which appreciates equality. Chinese culture has formal hierarchy which values age and status of the individual in the society unlike American culture that is informal. Chinese culture on social relationships is influenced by Confucianism behaviors that provide the subject and ruler. For instance, children should have maximum loyalty and respect to age and seniority in the family unlike American culture where respect is accorded according to ones achievements in life. In social gatherings, Chinese people prefer public places like restaurants and one should demonstrate they are enjoying the occasion while the host of the event begins eating first unlike American culture which prefers to host social gatherings in homes and private places (Alon 104). Chinese business culture values well established social relationships and face to face interactions and meetings unlike American culture which is geared at completing the tasks and written rules business and communication such as e-mails and telephone conversations. On the issue of government, Chinese culture is nationalistic and patriotic and obeys the authority and hierarchy in society quietly. Chinese people respect their traditional beliefs and main religions include Taoism, Confucianism and Buddhism while American religious culture is secular and characterized by various religious

Monday, August 26, 2019

ANTH 2 Museum Visit Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

ANTH 2 Museum Visit - Assignment Example they believed they controlled the nature hence they did everything to please them and have their favors (Kathleen 124) .They had a king called pharaoh to whom they believed came from the gods and all religious practices centered on him. The government of Egypt used most of its resources in performing rituals and building of temples. Each individual interacted with the gods through prayers and believed in magic. They believed in life after death and they performed various funeral practices. They offered much treatment to the dead so as to maintain their bodies and spirits hence they offered various goods to the grave. They had gods that represented various things, such as sun god Ra, the creator god Amun, and the mother goddess Isis. They had strong beliefs in a pantheon of gods, who represented various aspects of society and human nature and had different roles. They controlled the forces of the nature and existed in various forms. Gods were also closely interrelated and even had gods who existed as a family as it contained the father, mother and child and they worshipped them together. The Egyptian history is of two periods, that is the first and the second intermediate periods. The first intermediate (dark period) existed for close to 100 years. Two competing bases of powers characterized this period. The Upper Egypt in Thebes, and the Lower Egypt in Heracleopolis. The reason for splitting Egypt into two power bases was political in nature as the ruler Pepi II ruled for so long time hence creating difficulties in succession hence leading to splitting, but later the Theban king who resided at the lower base conquered the north hence leading to the reunification of Egypt. The second intermediate period was also marked with political wrangles of succession. It started after the fall of the 12 dynasty. After the queen died, there was no heir to succeed her. This marked the end of the first intermediate period and the start of the second intermediate period.

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Political Parties Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 2

Political Parties - Research Paper Example In consideration of the American political organization, a discussion on decentralization will be elaborated as the basic trait of the American political party system. Furthermore, it deliberates the state political party organization in the U.S. Definition of Political Parties Political parties are defined as groups of organized individuals who obtain and perform political power. They refer to political organizations that attempt to influence or administer governance by trying to elect their own candidate for a political position. They often take part in election campaigns and political debates. These groups of people possess ideals or vision manifested in a party program. This program is supported by a platform which contains particular objectives. These parties form a coalition in support of its platform although interests differ at some point in time (Katz and Crotty 6). In the U.S., there are two political parties that dominate the nation’s political system, namely, the D emocrats and Republicans. The two political parties had elected their own candidates for the presidency since 1852 had and governed U.S. Congress since 1856 (â€Å"Democratic-Republican Party†). The Democratic Party is the eldest among all political parties in the world. This party’s ideals lean more on economic matters. The economic ideals and platform of this party was greatly influenced by former U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt in 1932. This political party obtained the most number of affiliated members in 2004 wherein it garnered about 72 million American supporters. The incumbent president Barack Obama is the 15th president to be under this political party. Significantly, it also became the majority party in the senate since 2006. In 2011, the supporters for this political party had declined in number, but still remains to be larger than its counterpart, the Republicans (Wagner 56). The Republican Party became prominent when Abraham Lincoln won the presidential elections in 1860. This political party champions the platform of American conservatism. It pushes more on fiscal and social conservative ideals, alongside liberal ideologies on economics. The last Republican president to hold office was former President George W. Bush. In terms of the presidency, this political party has succeeded in putting 19 presidents in the White House under its organization as compared to the Democrats who have been close in winning 15 presidential seats (Anderson 45). Aside from these two prominent political parties in the U.S., there are other political parties that exist which are known as the major third parties, which include Constitution Party, Green Party, and Libertarian Party. The Constitution Party’s platform focuses on ideals that are based from the U.S. Declaration of Independence and the Bible. The platform of the Green Party involves more on environmentalism while the Libertarian Party upholds the philosophy of libertarianism (Maisel and Berry 75). Functions of Political Party System The main point of political parties is to group individuals together, who hold the same ideals toward the government. These individuals coordinate their efforts in electing their own candidate to hold a position in the government in order to push their respective platforms to realization. The U.S. has a two-political party system, which consist of Democrats and Republicans. Despite having the existence of minor parties in the political scene, none have succeeded in

Saturday, August 24, 2019

International Market Entry and Development Essay - 6

International Market Entry and Development - Essay Example ct researches globally to recognize the global and regional segments of the market and to observe chance for incorporating and better synchronizing the strategies across the national borders. In addition to this speedy collection of information and formulation of results from geographically concentrated sources become very important to predict change in the market and develop a more detailed and useful response strategies (Carman, J. M, 1980). Technological advances both facilitate as well as cause more difficulties in gathering data on global basis. The advances and continuously increasing technological complexities allows the collection of data on a broader geographical scale. Yet the flip side of this advances should never be ignored. To cater the research needs of today’s world, one must examine the changes under which they have gone through in the last four decades. In the early 60s and 70s U.S firms decided to shift to the international markets from the domestic markets. Japan and Europe also expanded from the domestic markets to the international markets to widen their geographical range and to act in response of the foreign competitions that was entering their domestic markets. Initially firms were interested more in gathering information to discover and judge the market opportunities of the other countries to assess which markets should be targeted, how to do the positioning of the products and how much to adapt the marketing mix to the local markets (Carman, J. M, 1980) The changes in the global market along with the technological changes in the collection of data, its analysis and its distribution entail that the researches should broaden their spectrum to plan, implement and to execute the research in this competitive world. Researchers need to align their skills and capabilities in order to carry and plan the researches in this competitive world (Carman, J. M, 1980) The growth of retailers globally also assist marketing research. As their chains

Friday, August 23, 2019

Poetry Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Poetry - Essay Example The gloominess of the poems is enough to create a sense of hopelessness and human misery. This paper tends to analyze the two poems, and makes a comparison to comprehend the similarities and differences in them. Let’s start with the 14 line poem â€Å"For My Daughter† by Weldon Kees. The poet starts with a narration of his daughter, and describes the three kinds of miseries that she is going through, or is expected to go through. Lines 2-3 â€Å"Beneath the innocence of morning flesh/ Concealed, hintings of death she does not heed† reveal that the girl is suffering from some disease, and is near to death. The poem was written in a time when disease would go untreated, and this shows in the poem too. She is â€Å"fed on hate† (line 10), which means that her life is burdened with abhorrence. â€Å"Bride of a syphilitic or a fool† (line 12) shows that the girl has been married to a person who is sick with a sexually transmitted disease. He has infected her too which is why she is waiting for death to come to her. The essence of the poem is in the lines 13-14: â€Å"These speculations sour in the sun./ I have no daughter. I desire none.† These lines show the worthlessness of the life of a woman. First, it gets revealed that the poet is talking about a made-up character and has considered it as his daughter; and second, the poet shows hatred toward that character by stating that he does not want a daughter. We assume that he believes that if he had a daughter, she would have gone through a very miserable life, which is why he does not long for her existence anymore. He believes that it is better to have no daughter than to have one and leave her to face all the hurdles of life. This reveals the insignificance of a woman’s life that is stereotyped as despondent and bleak, so much so that it makes a daughter an unwanted being. The free-verse, three stanza poem â€Å"Grass† by Carl Sandburg is a depiction of death leading to worthlessness. The narrator of the poem is â€Å"grass†, which also implies â€Å"Nature†. The grass orders to pile up the bodies of soldiers at Austerlitz, Waterloo, Gettysburg, Ypres and Verdun. Soldiers that have died in wars have to be piled and buried at these places. â€Å"Shovel them under and let me work† is repeated twice, which stress upon the fact that the Nature is running its course no matter what happens. â€Å"I am the grass† and â€Å"let me work† also appear twice, which highlights the power of the Nature. This strength shows in line 3: â€Å"I am the grass; I cover all† because this depicts the fact that Nature has the power to cover the filthy work of humans, making them as clean and pure as they were born. The poem tells how soldiers are killed and buried, and how their sacrifices are easily forgotten by people. Time passes, and people even forget who they were and where they were buried. This shows the worthl essness of the lives of dead soldiers. â€Å"Two years, ten years, and passengers ask the conductor: What place is this? Where are we now?† shows how easily people forget what has happened in the past which enabled them to be what they are. Lessons of history are forgotten but repeated. Whatever happens, Nature continues its work. Putting it all together, it is seen that both the poems compared above are based on the same themes: death and worthlessness. Both the poems are based on different ideas, but talk about human misery, pain,

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Country with High Mortality Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Country with High Mortality - Research Paper Example The total surface area of the country is 238,533 sq. km /92,098 sq. miles (WHO, 2013). According to the United Nations Department Of Population and Social Affairs, the estimated total population for Ghana was 24,392 000 for the year 2010 and a projected 27,315,000 in year 2015.Of the total population, a bigger percentage is estimated to be in urban areas than I rural areas. The total population density for Ghana is estimated to be 82,000 and 146,000 people per kilometre in 2000 and 2030 respectively (WHO, 2013). Ghana is one of the more stable nations in Africa, with a good record of power changing hands peacefully. It has a multi-party system with a presidential representative government, whereby; the president is elected directly by citizens in general elections. The president becomes both the head of state and government (Princeton.edu, 2013). Ghana is the world's second largest cocoa producer behind Ivory Coast, and Africa's biggest gold miner after South Africa. Other top minera ls in Ghana include tuna, bauxite, aluminium, manganese ore, and diamonds. It is one of the continent's fastest growing economies with a projected growth rate of 7% in 2012 although its lower than of the previous year(World Bank,2013). The high growth rate is prompted by strong cocoa production, increased gold production among other factors. The GNI per capita of Ghana is US $1,230 (WHO, 2013) State of Health in Ghana The probability of dying between 15 and 60 years otherwise known as adult mortality rate, in Ghana was 273 per 1000 people. The life expectancy in years is slightly higher in females than in males, at 64% and 60% respectively. According to WHO, the leading cause of death in the country is malaria followed by HIV/AIDS and diarrhoeal diseases. It is estimated that in 2008, the leading cause of death among children under five was malaria, accounting for 26% of the total deaths. The mortality rate as a result of malaria in 2006 was higher in Ghana than in the neighbouring Cote d’ vore.In addition, theHIV/AIDS was also high in that country as compared to Burkina Faso and generally in the African continent in year 2007.Communicable diseases record the highest burden of disease, followed by non-communicable diseases. Injuries have the lowest distribution of burden of disease. According to WHO, the number of deaths from traffic accidents in Ghana was among the highest in the world, which marks a major contribution to the high mortality rates. Being one of the stable nations in Africa, Ghana does not experience a lot of deaths from violence (WHO, 2013). According to a study conducted in Ghana titled â€Å"Public Perceptions on the Role of Traditional Medicine in Health Care Delivery System†, findings suggest that traditional medicine is effective in treating various ailments. Some of the ailments that are effectively treated using traditional medicines in Ghana include malaria, mental illness, infertility, arthritis, boils, and typhoid fever , just to mention a few. While this is the case, it is worth noting that the traditional medicines are non-standardised as emphasized by Gyasi, Mensah, Osei-Wusu & Agyemang,2011). To most Ghanaians, poverty is a strong barrier to the utilization of health people than the orthodox care services. It’s no surprise then that traditional medicine is found to be cheaper and more readily available to the medicine.

Compare the Crucible and the Mccarthy Era Essay Example for Free

Compare the Crucible and the Mccarthy Era Essay The McCarthy era, which took place during the 1950s in the United States was a time people was afraid of communism. Americans believed the Soviet Union going to take over the government of the United States and Americans can lose their freedom. As a result of McCarthyism Arther Miller, wrote The Crucible because people was falsely accused of communism like how in Salam that was accused of witchcraft. During this period, a climate of fear of communism existed in the United States due to certain significant events. One of these events was the trial of Alger hiss. Whittaker chambers a former Soviet Union clams that Alger hiss had been giving the Soviet Union information about the united state government. In court chambers was ask about his association with Alger Hiss. Chambers had described how he stayed with Alger and his wife Priscilla for some time. Chambers said how tried to get Alger to leave the communist party, but he refused to leave the party. Alger hiss claim that he don’t know a man name Whittaker and he never seen him before in his life. Nixon asks chambers many questions about Alger’s nicknames, habits, vacations and hobbies. Chambers said the Hiss both had the same hobby –amateur ornithologists and bird observers. On October 8, chambers find four notes handwritten by Alger hiss, copies of state documents and 35mm film. Alger was accused of making copies of state government. The documents were type using Woodstock typewriter. Another event that cause fear during the McCarthy era is the effect of the Korean War. The Korean War was between the noncommunist and communist. Korea was divided by the communist the north and noncommunist the south. On June 25, 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea. America sends over the navy, Army and some of the united nation to help South Korea fight off North Korea. North Korea pushed past and got to the capital of South Korea call Seoul. The South Korea pushes them back to the 38th parallel line. The Korea war finally ended July of 1953. The Americans fear if they had let North Korea  conjured South Korea then communism will spread to the United States. During the 1987 the Soviet Union is trying to create more deadly missiles and weapons. For the first time in 1986 an adversary has the ability to destroy our country and us in the matters of minutes (Chapman). The Soviet Union has an advantage because they have nuclear missiles. Also the Soviet Union has done their research on ballistic missile defenses and land base missals. The climate of fear of communism in the United States leads to the rise of McCarthyism. McCarthyism is a mid-20th century political attitude characterized chiefly by opposition to elements held to be subversive and by the use of tactics involving personal attacks on individuals by means of widely publicized indiscriminate allegations especially on the basis of unsubstantiated charges. Joseph McCarthy on December 2, 1954 was voted senate of the United States. McCarthy gave a speech on February 9, 1950 in West Virginia; he said he had a list of 205 people in the State Department known to be members of the Communist Party. Joseph used his manipulate way and the era’s fear of global communism allowed him to build power while destroying lives and careers.   The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) was created in 1938 to investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities of private citizens, public employees, and t organizations suspected of having Communist ties.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Delivery of Citizenship and PHSE within UK Schools

Delivery of Citizenship and PHSE within UK Schools This project addresses the problems that are currently being encountered with regard to the delivery of citizenship and PHSE within UK schools. To give emergent themes context – an historical review of their academic treatment is presented. This is broadened by considering the United States delivery of these subjects to determine whether the UK can learn anything from the American experience. Documentary analysis and interview schedules are the research methods used to analyse secondary sources and generate primary data. A number of conclusions are drawn – namely these subjects must be linked to current issues (e.g. AIDS/HIV, global citizenship etc) of the day – to ensure that their content and delivery remain relevant to the needs of young people. Recommendations for a more flexible approach regarding the delivery and assessment of these subjects are made at the end of the study. 1.1 What Does â€Å"Citizenship† Mean? Before it is possible to critically review and evaluate th eeffectiveness of the learning and teaching methods that are used to deliver citizenship and PHSE, it is necessary to begin by analysing their rationale and curricular content. In other words what are these subjects about and what are the benefits that pupils gain by studying them? Answering this question will provide a framework within which it can be determined whethercurrent academic practices are satisfying the aims and objectives ofthese subjects. Citizenship is a concept that can have a myriad of meanings andinterpretations. There is no universally agreed definition. Models of citizenship vary from country to country. The concept is continuously contested by political parties, academics and pressure groups. Despite the many interpretations of the concept that exist, all notions of citizenship imply to a greater or lesser degree, membership of apolitical community that is internally defined by rights, duties, participation and identity. The term â€Å"Active Citizenship† is widely used, but again there is no single accepted definition. The phrase is open to interpretation. From an educational perspective when there is no universally accepteddefinition of a concept, it makes it extremely difficult to transform such a subject into a meaningful learning experience for young people. In other words there are no â€Å"hard and fast† rules which can be appliedby teachers. When a concept has a clear and universally accepteddefinition, it provides the means by which to breakdown the subject into manageable chunks of learning. Thus students become skilled and knowledgeable when applying each component to a given set of circumstances. For example, in Business Studies, if you wish to measure the financialperformance of a company, it is possible to apply a number ofuniversally accepted accounting ratios. This forms a set ofâ€Å"standards†, which are quantifiable and which can be applied in a constant manner to a variety of different situations over a period of time. When it is possible to apply clearly defined and universally accepted standards to a subject or a concept – it becomes relativelyeasy to teach and learn. When a student understands how each component of a subject works, it isthen possible to interlink these areas and increase the complexity oflearning activities. Thus over time the student will master each stage(i.e. knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis,evaluation) of the cognitive learning domain (Source:www.businessballs.com, Blooms Taxonomy of Learning Domains).Students will have a holistic view of the subject content and willunderstand how the constituent components interlink. Given that citizenship does not have a universally accepted definition; is it possible to develop a set of â€Å"standards†, which can be constantly applied? Citizenship poses serious problems for educationalists interms of its definition and delivery as a subject to young people throughout the UK. What are the statutory requirements for teaching citizenship? It is a statutory subject at key stages 3 and 4. Apartfrom the absence of an eight-level scale of achievement, it is treatedexactly the same as other foundation subjects in the National Curriculum. Schools are required to establish high standards for citizenship that are comparable with standards in other subjects (Source:www.dfes.gov.uk/citizenship). 1.2 What Are The Similarities Between Citizenship And PHSE? Both subjects are similar in their emphasis on values and attitudes,and in their concern to empower young people to act effectively andwith self-confidence. They are also similar in some of the themes they explore; such drug abuse and equal opportunities – and their emphasison active learning techniques like role play and discussion. What distinguishes the two concepts are their focus and content. PHSE focuses on personal and inter-personal decision making, whilecitizenship education deals with â€Å"public policy†. PHSE is concernedwith students’ choices as private individuals, the other with their rights as citizens. For example, a typical PSHE lesson on smoking deals withlegal rights and responsibilities, whereas a citizenship lesson focuseson the cost to society – exploring issues such as legislation onsmoking in public places or tobacco advertising. Thus citizenship canbe viewed as the global or societal perspective on key issues e.g.smoking etc. PHSE, on the other hand, concentrates on the needs, expectations and responsibilities of the individual. 1.3 Why Is It Necessary To Investigate The Teaching And Learning Methods Of Citizenship and PSHE? In 2004 the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) published areport (PSHE 2002/3 annual report on curriculum and assessment, QCA,March 2004) on the delivery of PSHE within schools in England. In thesummary of key findings it was noted that in some schools, there wasconfusion about what the differences and similarities between PSHE andcitizenship. Also even when schools had allocated a significant amount of curriculum time to the delivery of their PSHE programmes, it was rare for the assessment of pupils’ progress and achievement to take place. Ever since the National Curriculum was launched in 1988 there have been major concerns over the time available to deliver all of the core subjects (e.g. English, Mathematics etc). The introduction of new subjects (i.e. Citizenship in September 2002) places an even greater pressure on school timetables, teaching staff and resources. The major problems may be summarised as follows: a. As explained in section 1.1 there is no universally accepted definition of citizenship. b. There is confusion over the similarities and differences between citizenship and PSHE. c. The lack of quantifiable assessment strategies makes it verydifficult to evaluate the benefits pupils gain from the delivery ofthese subjects. d. Severe timetable constraints and a lack of appropriately trainedteaching staff are hindering the effective development and delivery ofthese areas. Therefore, the objectives of this project are as follows: a. To critically evaluate and review the learning and teachingmethods which are currently being used to deliver citizenship and PSHEin order to determine whether pupils are benefiting from thesestrategies. b. To identify examples of good practice and analyse whether they can be applied elsewhere. c. To analyse how these subjects and their interrelationship willdevelop in the future and determine how learning and teaching methodswill need to change in order to satisfy the new requirements. 2.1 The Teaching of Citizenship in UK Schools – A Historical Perspective The teaching of citizenship in UK schools has a long and problematicalhistory. Since the beginning of the twentieth century it has undergonea number of transformations. Up to the outbreak of the First World War,the purpose of citizenship education was to generate a sense ofnational cohesion, loyalty and obligation to the nature, as well as asense of pride in the Empire (Oliver and Heater, 1994). The secondphase of citizenship in education witnessed the rise of a more directapproach. That is, the systematic training of young people in deferenceand moral behaviour. Schools were encouraged to promote and cultivatethe â€Å"simple virtues of humility, service, restraint and respect forpersonality† (Ministry of Education, 1949, p.41), in their pupils. The 1960s brought a new emphasis regarding the delivery of citizenshipin schools. Notably that young people needed to become more politicallyaware and more active in their participation of social issues. A morerecent development (1990) witnessed the introduction of citizenshipinto the National Curriculum as a cross-curricular theme. Suchcross-curricular themes have suffered a chequered history and remain atthe margins of school timetables with the main thrust of deliveryconcentrating on core subjects and other academic considerations. This historical perspective of citizenship provides an insight into theproblems the subject has faced because of its poor definition andineffectual delivery. To rectify this situation a government proposalsought to â€Å"establish more explicit and coherent provision in the areasof personal, social and health education and citizenship† (DfEE, 1999,p. 1). The proposal aimed to introduce a framework across all keystages for personal, social and health education and citizenship.Furthermore, this development established â€Å"a coherent nationalframework which gives schools flexibility to develop their ownapproaches.† (DfEE, 1999, p. 13). Whilst this approach raised the profile of citizenship and sought toestablish it as an integral part of the National Curriculum, it createda number of problems. How exactly was it going to fit into a schooltimetable? As outlined earlier, in section 1.3, there have beennumerous problems with the National Curriculum, since its launch in1988. In 1999, there were yet again a number of government initiativesto reduce the prescriptive nature of the National Curriculum andprovide schools with greater flexibility. On the whole these changeslike previous initiatives only resulted in cosmetic changes. The other major problem with the new version of citizenship lay withthe delivery. Who exactly was going to teach this subject? It wasproposed that the knowledge required to teach the subject could begained from the core of an initial teacher training degree orpostgraduate certificate in education. Teachers already delivering PSHEcould acquire the knowledge and skills required to deliver citizenshipthrough continuous professional development. Having analysed the teaching of citizenship within the UK in terms ofthe current situation and from an historical perspective, it isnecessary to explore how this issue is dealt with by other countries.This will provide the opportunity to compare and contrast the UKexperience with other nations and determine whether there are anylessons to be learnt. In other words are there examples of goodpractice overseas? If so, is it transferable to schools in the UK? 2.2 The Teaching of Citizenship in the United States In the United States education for citizenship has been a longstanding goal of schools. To achieve this goal, students must learntheir civil rights and responsibilities in a free society. In 1991 JohnJ Patrick provided a review of why this was necessary and outlined howit could be achieved. Five key points, which are outlined below, formedthe basis of this review. a. The importance of teaching about the responsibilities of citizenship b. Deficiencies in learning about responsible citizenship c. How to improve learning about responsible citizenship at home d. How to improve learning about responsible citizenship at school e. Where to obtain information and materials about how to teach responsible citizenship The rationale for teaching citizenship was based upon the premise thatthe preservation of civil rights and liberties is linked to theperformance of responsibilities. Thus the responsibilities ofcitizenship – such as voluntary service to the community, participationin the political system etc – were essential to ensure the maintenanceof civil rights and liberties. However, reports on civic learning bythe National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), indicated thatthe majority of students in the 12th grade had a very limited knowledgeof government and citizenship in the United States. Furthermore, halfof the students in the 12th grade failed to demonstrate the knowledgeneeded for responsible participation in the political system. Thus in 1991 there was a clear need to improve the learning of youngAmericans about their responsibilities as citizens in a moderndemocracy. In effect Patrick was advocating a holistic approach to theteaching of citizenship within American schools. That is, young peopleneeded to become actively involved in every aspect of American life.Consequently he provided a list of organisations where materials couldbe obtained in order to aid the delivery of this subject. For example,the American Bar Association which operated a Special Committee onYouth Education for Citizenship, the Constitutional Rights Foundation,Council for the Advancement of Citizenship, the Social ScienceEducation Consortium and so on. The approach actively promoted by Patrick failed to have the desiredeffect. In 1991 the NAEP reported poor levels of attainment amongst12th graders with regard to citizenship and its related areas. Theresults of the 1998 NAEP civics examination completed by a sample of4th, 8th and 12th grade students across the United States showed thatstudents were not proficient in the skills that enable citizens to usetheir civic knowledge. The NAEP 2001 History Report Card results alsoshowed a similar lack of proficiency. President Bush launched a number of initiatives in 2003 to improve theawareness of citizenship and associated areas among young peoplethroughout the United States. Some of these initiatives are highlightedbelow: †¢ Idea of American Essay Contest: High School juniors nationwide areinvited to submit a 1,200 word essay on the â€Å"Idea of America† andreceive awards. †¢ â€Å"Heroes of History† Lecture: An annual lecture that features anacclaimed scholar telling the story of a hero in American life. Theselectures are made available to school libraries throughout the UnitedStates. President Bush participated in Pledge Across America, a nationwidepatriotic observation that invited every school child in America toparticipate in a simultaneous pledge of allegiance at 2pm EasternDaylight Time. The pledge was observed on the 215th anniversary of theUnited States Constitution, the conclusion of the first-ever NationalCivic Participation Week, and the beginning of Constitution Week(Source: http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/edu/fs091702.htm). 2.3 What Can We Learn From The Americans With Regard To Teaching Citizenship? The analysis of the American experience raises a number ofinteresting points. Notably the American educational authorities viathe National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) are activelyengaged in measuring students’ attainment with regard to theirknowledge and understanding of citizenship issues. As noted the resultson the whole have been poor. In the UK citizenship is taught throughoutall of the Key Stages of the National Curriculum. However, in Key Stages 1 and 2, there is no requirement for the formalassessment of pupils’ knowledge and understanding of citizenship issues(Source:www.dfes.gov.uk/citizenship). Progress in this subject issummarised in each pupil’s annual school report. In Key Stage 3, thereis an end-of-stage assessment. Whilst in Key Stage 4 there is nostatutory requirement for assessment. Three short courses are availablei.e. GCSE Citizenship Studies. The AQA (Assessment and QualificationsAlliance) version of this qualification requires students to undertakea 1.5 hour examination and complete a project. Should the UK adopt the United States assessment model? It wouldprovide the opportunity to quantify each pupil’s level of knowledge andunderstanding of citizenship issues throughout each Key Stage of theNational Curriculum. Such an approach would provide data which could beanalysed to determine the effectiveness of the teaching and learningstrategies that are currently deployed to deliver citizenship within UKschools. However, such a proposal would be met with stiff resistancefrom a variety of sources (i.e. teachers, parents, educationalistsetc). It is already considered in many quarters that school children inthe UK are already over assessed. Also it is interesting to note that the American model of citizenshipis radically different from the British version. The informationprovided about the American experience includes such phrases as â€Å"Heroesof History†. The British equivalent would mean portraying the likes ofHoratio Nelson and the Duke of Wellington as â€Å"heroes†. Thus theAmerican model concentrates heavily on patriotism (e.g. Pledge AcrossAmerica) and herein lays a broader issue. The United States isuniversally criticised throughout the world for being too insular, tooselfish and is not perceived as accepting its global responsibility tothe non-American citizens of the world. The American version ofcitizenship does not seem to recognise the word â€Å"global†. 2.4 The Future of Citizenship – Beyond National Boundaries The European Union has been in existence for nearly 50 years. However,until very recently, education remained untouched by the gradualmovement towards the pan European state. Curricula development andcontent were protected by each member-state. Since the advent of theMaastricht Treaty, the EU has developed and funded a number ofeducational initiatives to promote the concept of a â€Å"European superstate†; largely it must be said, without success. The Commission’sattempts to â€Å"Europeanise† education remained largely ineffective,mostly confined to the recognition of diplomas, vocational educationand the exchange of language teaching programmes (Soysal, 2001). However, a closer look at the way â€Å"Europe†, â€Å"nation† and â€Å"citizenship†are being represented in school books and curricula, particularly inthe disciplines of history and civics reveals another kind ofâ€Å"Europeanisation process† – that is, how European identity is likely toemerge and of significance to this project – how it will be taught inEuropean schools. This process is happening through highly active andinformal networks – largely unmonitored by formal EU institutions.Teachers’ unions and associations, academics and scientific experts,advocacy groups etc – are busy networking, arranging conferences etc –on â€Å"teaching Europe†. Perhaps the most significant development in this process is thedisappearance of the â€Å"nation state† – historical events are now retoldwithin a European perspective and a not within a nationalisticstraightjacket. National identities locate their legitimacy in deeplyrooted histories, cultures or territories. But Europe is notpast-oriented: it is future orientated. What does this mean for theteaching of citizenship in schools throughout Europe? It has long beenrecognised that these problems can only be resolved by nations actingas one. This is why the United States receives a lot of criticism, asit constantly failed to sign up to international agreements on carbonemissions etc. Thus the â€Å"Europeanisation process† is merely a steppingstone towards the creation of â€Å"global citizenship†. Learning for global citizenship is about understanding the need totackle injustice and inequality, and having the desire and ability towork effectively to do so: this is referred to as Action Competence(Jensen and Schnak, 1994). An example of a resource that provides aframework for learner-centred delivery would be Get Global! This iswhere pupils are involved in every aspect of their own educationalexperience. The Oxford Schools Catalogue contains a wide range ofmaterials published by Oxfam and others, focused on learning for GlobalCitizenship (Source:www.oxfam.org.uk/coolplanet/teachers/catalogue.htm). 2.5 A Brief History of Sex Education in UK Schools In England from the late 19th century, a number of sex educationpublications were produced, mainly aimed at helping parents toenlighten their children. The Second World War had a huge impact on thepopulation of Europe. Fresh emphasis in sex education was placed onpreventing syphilis and gonorrhoea. In the 1950s and 1960s sexeducation in schools was carried out through the descriptions of thereproductive habits of plants and animals. By the beginning of the1970s, school sex education was beginning to change significantly. Forexample, methods of contraception began to be more widely taught. The 1980s witnesses further developments in sex education. The rise offeminist-thinking led to an increase in the number of programmes thatencouraged pupils to examine the roles played by men and women. Sexeducation programmes began to have such aims as the acquisition ofskills for decision-making, communicating, personal relationships,parenting and coping strategies. HIV and AIDS became a health issue inthe UK just when sex education became a political football. A number ofsituations arose – the 1985 Gillick case, which focused on whetherparents always have the right to know if their children are beingissued with contraceptives when under the age of 16 – the growingstrength of the lesbian and gay movement, lead to the polarisation ofviews on sex education, among politicians at local and national level. Thus sex education, as was with citizenship, has become politicallycontroversial. Recent school sex education programmes have variedconsiderably in their aims. At one extreme (rarely found in the UK butwell-funded and widespread in the USA), abstinence education aims toensure that young people do not engage in heavy petting or sexualintercourse before marriage. At the other end of the scale, some sexeducation programmes, challenge sexist and homophobic attitudes(Source: www.open2.net/sundaysurgery/thehistoryp.html). 2.6 Summary Of The Key Factors In the UK and USA there is a realisation that young people need tobecome actively in all aspects of national life (e.g. politics, localcommunity, environment etc). However, there are major differencesbetween the two countries. The American approach towards citizenship isbased heavily on patriotism. In many respects the current Americanmodel of citizenship seems similar to the one that pertained in the UKin the early part of the 20th century. Despite America’s best effortsto increase young people’s knowledge and understanding of citizenshipconcepts, the NAEP results show no increase in student attainmentbetween 1991 and 2001. The Americans seem to be ignoring the development of citizenship beyondnational boundaries. In order to solve the world’s problems we need toact as one unified force – hence we all need to embrace â€Å"globalcitizenship†. Sex education has moved substantially from its extremelylimited earlier forms to embrace a broader spectrum of sexual andsocial issues (e.g. AIDS/HIV, homosexuality etc). When this is comparedto the American experience, again like citizenship, there are hugedifferences in terms of objectives and content. Many American sexeducation programmes are founded on very conservative moral values. 2.7 Conclusions That Can Be Drawn From The Literature Review In Relation To The Objectives Of The Project a. To critically evaluate and review the learning andteaching methods which are currently being used to deliver citizenshipand PSHE in order to determine whether pupils are benefiting from thesestrategies. The literature review has shown that there are major problems inassessing the benefits that young people derive from these subjects.Formal assessment is broken down into two elements – formative (i.e.on-course – an assignment etc) and summative (i.e. end-of-the course –an exam, a completed portfolio etc). In the USA the NAEP results do notshow an increase in students’ knowledge and understanding ofcitizenship concepts. Within the National Curriculum, citizenship andPHSE have a minimum of formal assessment requirements. However, are formal assessment methods the best way to determinewhether students are benefiting from citizenship and PHSE? The purposeof these subjects is to help young people become better adults e.g. toact and behave in a morally and socially responsible manner etc. Thusit is reasonable to argue that formal assessment methods can onlyprovide a superficial measure of a young person’s knowledge andunderstanding of these concepts. What does measuring a person’s abilityto recall facts actually tell us? In reality a person will gain from a well delivered citizenship andPHSE programme in the longer term. They will become a more sociallyresponsible person; they will become a more effective parent and so on.Thus teaching these subjects is in effect an act of faith – we hopethat benefits will be produced in the longer term. A longitudinal studyis required i.e. one where a group of students is tracked for a numberof years. However, there are many factors involved when someone turnsout to a good parent etc. It would be extremely hard to isolate theinfluences of citizenship and PHSE from all the other issues that areinvolved e.g. family background etc. Whilst it is nigh on impossible to assess the long-term benefits peoplegain from these subjects – it is possible to utilise existing learningand teaching methods to generate immediate benefits for the studentsconcerned. How this can be achieved will be analysed in the latterstages of the project. b. To identify examples of good practice and analyse whether they can be applied elsewhere. Has the literature review identify examples of good practice withregard to the teaching of citizenship and PHSE? Given the politicalcontroversy these subjects generate – there can only be one answer tothis question. It depends upon your point of view – determining whethersomething is an example of good practice is in the eye of the beholder.The key to progression is to establish and develop a wider audience forthe objectives you are trying to achieve. For example, the â€Å"Europeanisation process† demonstrates how differentorganisations, individuals etc – by working together, can create forumsfor discussion and the dissemination of new ideas, materials etc. TheInternet has revolutionised how people communicate and accessinformation. This allows people and organisations to bypass nationalboundaries and work towards the creation of â€Å"global citizenship†. Thus if they are going to be meaningful and allow young people toconnect and become part of â€Å"global citizenship† – the academic contentof citizenship and PHSE must reflect current developments. This meansthat learning and teaching methods must continuously evolve to ensurethat the delivery of these subjects reflects current trends anddevelopments. How this can be achieved will be explored in the latterstages of the project. c. To analyse how these subjects and theirinterrelationship will develop in the future and determine how learningand teaching methods will need to change in order to satisfy the newrequirements. A key feature of PHSE is that young people should practice â€Å"safe sex†.In its most literal form this simply means making sure that youngpeople have adequate access to and use of contraceptive methods. Insome quarters it would be argued that â€Å"safe sex† must involve moral,social and emotional responsibilities. Are these areas PHSE orcitizenship concepts? Whatever your view and political stance there isclearly an overlap between the two subjects. Future curricularinitiatives and the development of learning and teaching methods mustembrace the close interrelationship between these academic areas. 3.1 What Must The Research Methodology Achieve? In order to fulfil the requirements of the project objectives the research methodology must address the following issues: a. The analysis of the learning and teaching methods that are beingused to deliver citizenship and PHSE within UK schools in order todetermine their effectiveness. b. The critical evaluation of the assessment strategies that are used to measure pupil attainment within these subjects. c. An evaluation of how learning, teaching and assessment strategiesmust develop to ensure that citizenship and PHSE remain relevant to theneeds of young people. The National Curriculum was introduced in 1988 in order to develop acomprehensive approach to the delivery and development of educationwithin the UK. A number of government departments and agencies areresponsible for managing the content, development, delivery andeffectiveness of the education system. The research methodology mustinvestigate the work of these government departments and agencies inrelation to citizenship and PHSE. This is necessary in order to addressthe issues outlined above. How will this be achieved? The work of three different bodies must be investigated. These are as follows: a. The Department for Education and Skills (DfES) was establishedwith the purpose of creating opportunity, realising potential andachieving excellent for all. The Qualifications Curriculum Authority(QCA) is a non-departmental public body, sponsored by the DfES. It isresponsible for maintaining and developing the National Curriculum andassociated assessments, tests and examinations; and accredits andmonitors qualifications in colleges and at work. It is thisorganisation which is responsible for managing and developing thecurricular content of citizenship and PHSE and providing guidance onlearning and teaching methods. b. The Office for Educational Standards (OFSTED) is the inspectoratefor children and learners in England. Its main responsibility is tocontribute to the provision of better education and care. This isachieved through a comprehensive system of inspection and regulationcovering childcare, schools, colleges, children’s services, teachertraining and youth work. Thus it inspects and evaluates the teaching ofcitizenship and PHSE throughout England. c. The practitioners (i.e. the school managers, teachers, supportworkers etc) are responsible for delivering the curricular content ofcitizenship and PHSE in accordance with the standards and methodsstated and disseminated by the DfES and the QCA. 3.2 What Methods Will The Research Methodology Use? Secondary research is the investigation of data sources which alreadyexist. The main advantage of using such sources is that they arereadily available and can be utilised to develop knowledge andunderstanding of a given situation. Primary research entails generatinginformation, which did not previously exist. This is necessary whensecondary data sources do not fulfil the information requirements of aresearch project. In order to investigate the work of the DfES, QCA and OFSTED, it is notnecessary to conduct primary research. This is because of two reasons.One, the government wants the work of these bodies to be transparentand within the public domain. Two, easily accessible secondary datasources will be sufficient to facilitate the objectives of thisproject. As stated, the websites for the DfES, QCA and OFSTED provideaccess to numerous reports and information on all aspects of theiroperations. Therefore, the research method that will be used to analysethis data is documentary analysis. In effect this involves analysingreports and relating the findings to the project objectives. However, in any given project or area of research different opinionswill prevail. If you like – DfES, QCA and OFSTED represent thegovernment’s views. What does everybody else think? The practitioners –as listed above – are at the sharp end of the business – Delivery of Citizenship and PHSE within UK Schools Delivery of Citizenship and PHSE within UK Schools This project addresses the problems that are currently being encountered with regard to the delivery of citizenship and PHSE within UK schools. To give emergent themes context – an historical review of their academic treatment is presented. This is broadened by considering the United States delivery of these subjects to determine whether the UK can learn anything from the American experience. Documentary analysis and interview schedules are the research methods used to analyse secondary sources and generate primary data. A number of conclusions are drawn – namely these subjects must be linked to current issues (e.g. AIDS/HIV, global citizenship etc) of the day – to ensure that their content and delivery remain relevant to the needs of young people. Recommendations for a more flexible approach regarding the delivery and assessment of these subjects are made at the end of the study. 1.1 What Does â€Å"Citizenship† Mean? Before it is possible to critically review and evaluate th eeffectiveness of the learning and teaching methods that are used to deliver citizenship and PHSE, it is necessary to begin by analysing their rationale and curricular content. In other words what are these subjects about and what are the benefits that pupils gain by studying them? Answering this question will provide a framework within which it can be determined whethercurrent academic practices are satisfying the aims and objectives ofthese subjects. Citizenship is a concept that can have a myriad of meanings andinterpretations. There is no universally agreed definition. Models of citizenship vary from country to country. The concept is continuously contested by political parties, academics and pressure groups. Despite the many interpretations of the concept that exist, all notions of citizenship imply to a greater or lesser degree, membership of apolitical community that is internally defined by rights, duties, participation and identity. The term â€Å"Active Citizenship† is widely used, but again there is no single accepted definition. The phrase is open to interpretation. From an educational perspective when there is no universally accepteddefinition of a concept, it makes it extremely difficult to transform such a subject into a meaningful learning experience for young people. In other words there are no â€Å"hard and fast† rules which can be appliedby teachers. When a concept has a clear and universally accepteddefinition, it provides the means by which to breakdown the subject into manageable chunks of learning. Thus students become skilled and knowledgeable when applying each component to a given set of circumstances. For example, in Business Studies, if you wish to measure the financialperformance of a company, it is possible to apply a number ofuniversally accepted accounting ratios. This forms a set ofâ€Å"standards†, which are quantifiable and which can be applied in a constant manner to a variety of different situations over a period of time. When it is possible to apply clearly defined and universally accepted standards to a subject or a concept – it becomes relativelyeasy to teach and learn. When a student understands how each component of a subject works, it isthen possible to interlink these areas and increase the complexity oflearning activities. Thus over time the student will master each stage(i.e. knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis,evaluation) of the cognitive learning domain (Source:www.businessballs.com, Blooms Taxonomy of Learning Domains).Students will have a holistic view of the subject content and willunderstand how the constituent components interlink. Given that citizenship does not have a universally accepted definition; is it possible to develop a set of â€Å"standards†, which can be constantly applied? Citizenship poses serious problems for educationalists interms of its definition and delivery as a subject to young people throughout the UK. What are the statutory requirements for teaching citizenship? It is a statutory subject at key stages 3 and 4. Apartfrom the absence of an eight-level scale of achievement, it is treatedexactly the same as other foundation subjects in the National Curriculum. Schools are required to establish high standards for citizenship that are comparable with standards in other subjects (Source:www.dfes.gov.uk/citizenship). 1.2 What Are The Similarities Between Citizenship And PHSE? Both subjects are similar in their emphasis on values and attitudes,and in their concern to empower young people to act effectively andwith self-confidence. They are also similar in some of the themes they explore; such drug abuse and equal opportunities – and their emphasison active learning techniques like role play and discussion. What distinguishes the two concepts are their focus and content. PHSE focuses on personal and inter-personal decision making, whilecitizenship education deals with â€Å"public policy†. PHSE is concernedwith students’ choices as private individuals, the other with their rights as citizens. For example, a typical PSHE lesson on smoking deals withlegal rights and responsibilities, whereas a citizenship lesson focuseson the cost to society – exploring issues such as legislation onsmoking in public places or tobacco advertising. Thus citizenship canbe viewed as the global or societal perspective on key issues e.g.smoking etc. PHSE, on the other hand, concentrates on the needs, expectations and responsibilities of the individual. 1.3 Why Is It Necessary To Investigate The Teaching And Learning Methods Of Citizenship and PSHE? In 2004 the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) published areport (PSHE 2002/3 annual report on curriculum and assessment, QCA,March 2004) on the delivery of PSHE within schools in England. In thesummary of key findings it was noted that in some schools, there wasconfusion about what the differences and similarities between PSHE andcitizenship. Also even when schools had allocated a significant amount of curriculum time to the delivery of their PSHE programmes, it was rare for the assessment of pupils’ progress and achievement to take place. Ever since the National Curriculum was launched in 1988 there have been major concerns over the time available to deliver all of the core subjects (e.g. English, Mathematics etc). The introduction of new subjects (i.e. Citizenship in September 2002) places an even greater pressure on school timetables, teaching staff and resources. The major problems may be summarised as follows: a. As explained in section 1.1 there is no universally accepted definition of citizenship. b. There is confusion over the similarities and differences between citizenship and PSHE. c. The lack of quantifiable assessment strategies makes it verydifficult to evaluate the benefits pupils gain from the delivery ofthese subjects. d. Severe timetable constraints and a lack of appropriately trainedteaching staff are hindering the effective development and delivery ofthese areas. Therefore, the objectives of this project are as follows: a. To critically evaluate and review the learning and teachingmethods which are currently being used to deliver citizenship and PSHEin order to determine whether pupils are benefiting from thesestrategies. b. To identify examples of good practice and analyse whether they can be applied elsewhere. c. To analyse how these subjects and their interrelationship willdevelop in the future and determine how learning and teaching methodswill need to change in order to satisfy the new requirements. 2.1 The Teaching of Citizenship in UK Schools – A Historical Perspective The teaching of citizenship in UK schools has a long and problematicalhistory. Since the beginning of the twentieth century it has undergonea number of transformations. Up to the outbreak of the First World War,the purpose of citizenship education was to generate a sense ofnational cohesion, loyalty and obligation to the nature, as well as asense of pride in the Empire (Oliver and Heater, 1994). The secondphase of citizenship in education witnessed the rise of a more directapproach. That is, the systematic training of young people in deferenceand moral behaviour. Schools were encouraged to promote and cultivatethe â€Å"simple virtues of humility, service, restraint and respect forpersonality† (Ministry of Education, 1949, p.41), in their pupils. The 1960s brought a new emphasis regarding the delivery of citizenshipin schools. Notably that young people needed to become more politicallyaware and more active in their participation of social issues. A morerecent development (1990) witnessed the introduction of citizenshipinto the National Curriculum as a cross-curricular theme. Suchcross-curricular themes have suffered a chequered history and remain atthe margins of school timetables with the main thrust of deliveryconcentrating on core subjects and other academic considerations. This historical perspective of citizenship provides an insight into theproblems the subject has faced because of its poor definition andineffectual delivery. To rectify this situation a government proposalsought to â€Å"establish more explicit and coherent provision in the areasof personal, social and health education and citizenship† (DfEE, 1999,p. 1). The proposal aimed to introduce a framework across all keystages for personal, social and health education and citizenship.Furthermore, this development established â€Å"a coherent nationalframework which gives schools flexibility to develop their ownapproaches.† (DfEE, 1999, p. 13). Whilst this approach raised the profile of citizenship and sought toestablish it as an integral part of the National Curriculum, it createda number of problems. How exactly was it going to fit into a schooltimetable? As outlined earlier, in section 1.3, there have beennumerous problems with the National Curriculum, since its launch in1988. In 1999, there were yet again a number of government initiativesto reduce the prescriptive nature of the National Curriculum andprovide schools with greater flexibility. On the whole these changeslike previous initiatives only resulted in cosmetic changes. The other major problem with the new version of citizenship lay withthe delivery. Who exactly was going to teach this subject? It wasproposed that the knowledge required to teach the subject could begained from the core of an initial teacher training degree orpostgraduate certificate in education. Teachers already delivering PSHEcould acquire the knowledge and skills required to deliver citizenshipthrough continuous professional development. Having analysed the teaching of citizenship within the UK in terms ofthe current situation and from an historical perspective, it isnecessary to explore how this issue is dealt with by other countries.This will provide the opportunity to compare and contrast the UKexperience with other nations and determine whether there are anylessons to be learnt. In other words are there examples of goodpractice overseas? If so, is it transferable to schools in the UK? 2.2 The Teaching of Citizenship in the United States In the United States education for citizenship has been a longstanding goal of schools. To achieve this goal, students must learntheir civil rights and responsibilities in a free society. In 1991 JohnJ Patrick provided a review of why this was necessary and outlined howit could be achieved. Five key points, which are outlined below, formedthe basis of this review. a. The importance of teaching about the responsibilities of citizenship b. Deficiencies in learning about responsible citizenship c. How to improve learning about responsible citizenship at home d. How to improve learning about responsible citizenship at school e. Where to obtain information and materials about how to teach responsible citizenship The rationale for teaching citizenship was based upon the premise thatthe preservation of civil rights and liberties is linked to theperformance of responsibilities. Thus the responsibilities ofcitizenship – such as voluntary service to the community, participationin the political system etc – were essential to ensure the maintenanceof civil rights and liberties. However, reports on civic learning bythe National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), indicated thatthe majority of students in the 12th grade had a very limited knowledgeof government and citizenship in the United States. Furthermore, halfof the students in the 12th grade failed to demonstrate the knowledgeneeded for responsible participation in the political system. Thus in 1991 there was a clear need to improve the learning of youngAmericans about their responsibilities as citizens in a moderndemocracy. In effect Patrick was advocating a holistic approach to theteaching of citizenship within American schools. That is, young peopleneeded to become actively involved in every aspect of American life.Consequently he provided a list of organisations where materials couldbe obtained in order to aid the delivery of this subject. For example,the American Bar Association which operated a Special Committee onYouth Education for Citizenship, the Constitutional Rights Foundation,Council for the Advancement of Citizenship, the Social ScienceEducation Consortium and so on. The approach actively promoted by Patrick failed to have the desiredeffect. In 1991 the NAEP reported poor levels of attainment amongst12th graders with regard to citizenship and its related areas. Theresults of the 1998 NAEP civics examination completed by a sample of4th, 8th and 12th grade students across the United States showed thatstudents were not proficient in the skills that enable citizens to usetheir civic knowledge. The NAEP 2001 History Report Card results alsoshowed a similar lack of proficiency. President Bush launched a number of initiatives in 2003 to improve theawareness of citizenship and associated areas among young peoplethroughout the United States. Some of these initiatives are highlightedbelow: †¢ Idea of American Essay Contest: High School juniors nationwide areinvited to submit a 1,200 word essay on the â€Å"Idea of America† andreceive awards. †¢ â€Å"Heroes of History† Lecture: An annual lecture that features anacclaimed scholar telling the story of a hero in American life. Theselectures are made available to school libraries throughout the UnitedStates. President Bush participated in Pledge Across America, a nationwidepatriotic observation that invited every school child in America toparticipate in a simultaneous pledge of allegiance at 2pm EasternDaylight Time. The pledge was observed on the 215th anniversary of theUnited States Constitution, the conclusion of the first-ever NationalCivic Participation Week, and the beginning of Constitution Week(Source: http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/edu/fs091702.htm). 2.3 What Can We Learn From The Americans With Regard To Teaching Citizenship? The analysis of the American experience raises a number ofinteresting points. Notably the American educational authorities viathe National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) are activelyengaged in measuring students’ attainment with regard to theirknowledge and understanding of citizenship issues. As noted the resultson the whole have been poor. In the UK citizenship is taught throughoutall of the Key Stages of the National Curriculum. However, in Key Stages 1 and 2, there is no requirement for the formalassessment of pupils’ knowledge and understanding of citizenship issues(Source:www.dfes.gov.uk/citizenship). Progress in this subject issummarised in each pupil’s annual school report. In Key Stage 3, thereis an end-of-stage assessment. Whilst in Key Stage 4 there is nostatutory requirement for assessment. Three short courses are availablei.e. GCSE Citizenship Studies. The AQA (Assessment and QualificationsAlliance) version of this qualification requires students to undertakea 1.5 hour examination and complete a project. Should the UK adopt the United States assessment model? It wouldprovide the opportunity to quantify each pupil’s level of knowledge andunderstanding of citizenship issues throughout each Key Stage of theNational Curriculum. Such an approach would provide data which could beanalysed to determine the effectiveness of the teaching and learningstrategies that are currently deployed to deliver citizenship within UKschools. However, such a proposal would be met with stiff resistancefrom a variety of sources (i.e. teachers, parents, educationalistsetc). It is already considered in many quarters that school children inthe UK are already over assessed. Also it is interesting to note that the American model of citizenshipis radically different from the British version. The informationprovided about the American experience includes such phrases as â€Å"Heroesof History†. The British equivalent would mean portraying the likes ofHoratio Nelson and the Duke of Wellington as â€Å"heroes†. Thus theAmerican model concentrates heavily on patriotism (e.g. Pledge AcrossAmerica) and herein lays a broader issue. The United States isuniversally criticised throughout the world for being too insular, tooselfish and is not perceived as accepting its global responsibility tothe non-American citizens of the world. The American version ofcitizenship does not seem to recognise the word â€Å"global†. 2.4 The Future of Citizenship – Beyond National Boundaries The European Union has been in existence for nearly 50 years. However,until very recently, education remained untouched by the gradualmovement towards the pan European state. Curricula development andcontent were protected by each member-state. Since the advent of theMaastricht Treaty, the EU has developed and funded a number ofeducational initiatives to promote the concept of a â€Å"European superstate†; largely it must be said, without success. The Commission’sattempts to â€Å"Europeanise† education remained largely ineffective,mostly confined to the recognition of diplomas, vocational educationand the exchange of language teaching programmes (Soysal, 2001). However, a closer look at the way â€Å"Europe†, â€Å"nation† and â€Å"citizenship†are being represented in school books and curricula, particularly inthe disciplines of history and civics reveals another kind ofâ€Å"Europeanisation process† – that is, how European identity is likely toemerge and of significance to this project – how it will be taught inEuropean schools. This process is happening through highly active andinformal networks – largely unmonitored by formal EU institutions.Teachers’ unions and associations, academics and scientific experts,advocacy groups etc – are busy networking, arranging conferences etc –on â€Å"teaching Europe†. Perhaps the most significant development in this process is thedisappearance of the â€Å"nation state† – historical events are now retoldwithin a European perspective and a not within a nationalisticstraightjacket. National identities locate their legitimacy in deeplyrooted histories, cultures or territories. But Europe is notpast-oriented: it is future orientated. What does this mean for theteaching of citizenship in schools throughout Europe? It has long beenrecognised that these problems can only be resolved by nations actingas one. This is why the United States receives a lot of criticism, asit constantly failed to sign up to international agreements on carbonemissions etc. Thus the â€Å"Europeanisation process† is merely a steppingstone towards the creation of â€Å"global citizenship†. Learning for global citizenship is about understanding the need totackle injustice and inequality, and having the desire and ability towork effectively to do so: this is referred to as Action Competence(Jensen and Schnak, 1994). An example of a resource that provides aframework for learner-centred delivery would be Get Global! This iswhere pupils are involved in every aspect of their own educationalexperience. The Oxford Schools Catalogue contains a wide range ofmaterials published by Oxfam and others, focused on learning for GlobalCitizenship (Source:www.oxfam.org.uk/coolplanet/teachers/catalogue.htm). 2.5 A Brief History of Sex Education in UK Schools In England from the late 19th century, a number of sex educationpublications were produced, mainly aimed at helping parents toenlighten their children. The Second World War had a huge impact on thepopulation of Europe. Fresh emphasis in sex education was placed onpreventing syphilis and gonorrhoea. In the 1950s and 1960s sexeducation in schools was carried out through the descriptions of thereproductive habits of plants and animals. By the beginning of the1970s, school sex education was beginning to change significantly. Forexample, methods of contraception began to be more widely taught. The 1980s witnesses further developments in sex education. The rise offeminist-thinking led to an increase in the number of programmes thatencouraged pupils to examine the roles played by men and women. Sexeducation programmes began to have such aims as the acquisition ofskills for decision-making, communicating, personal relationships,parenting and coping strategies. HIV and AIDS became a health issue inthe UK just when sex education became a political football. A number ofsituations arose – the 1985 Gillick case, which focused on whetherparents always have the right to know if their children are beingissued with contraceptives when under the age of 16 – the growingstrength of the lesbian and gay movement, lead to the polarisation ofviews on sex education, among politicians at local and national level. Thus sex education, as was with citizenship, has become politicallycontroversial. Recent school sex education programmes have variedconsiderably in their aims. At one extreme (rarely found in the UK butwell-funded and widespread in the USA), abstinence education aims toensure that young people do not engage in heavy petting or sexualintercourse before marriage. At the other end of the scale, some sexeducation programmes, challenge sexist and homophobic attitudes(Source: www.open2.net/sundaysurgery/thehistoryp.html). 2.6 Summary Of The Key Factors In the UK and USA there is a realisation that young people need tobecome actively in all aspects of national life (e.g. politics, localcommunity, environment etc). However, there are major differencesbetween the two countries. The American approach towards citizenship isbased heavily on patriotism. In many respects the current Americanmodel of citizenship seems similar to the one that pertained in the UKin the early part of the 20th century. Despite America’s best effortsto increase young people’s knowledge and understanding of citizenshipconcepts, the NAEP results show no increase in student attainmentbetween 1991 and 2001. The Americans seem to be ignoring the development of citizenship beyondnational boundaries. In order to solve the world’s problems we need toact as one unified force – hence we all need to embrace â€Å"globalcitizenship†. Sex education has moved substantially from its extremelylimited earlier forms to embrace a broader spectrum of sexual andsocial issues (e.g. AIDS/HIV, homosexuality etc). When this is comparedto the American experience, again like citizenship, there are hugedifferences in terms of objectives and content. Many American sexeducation programmes are founded on very conservative moral values. 2.7 Conclusions That Can Be Drawn From The Literature Review In Relation To The Objectives Of The Project a. To critically evaluate and review the learning andteaching methods which are currently being used to deliver citizenshipand PSHE in order to determine whether pupils are benefiting from thesestrategies. The literature review has shown that there are major problems inassessing the benefits that young people derive from these subjects.Formal assessment is broken down into two elements – formative (i.e.on-course – an assignment etc) and summative (i.e. end-of-the course –an exam, a completed portfolio etc). In the USA the NAEP results do notshow an increase in students’ knowledge and understanding ofcitizenship concepts. Within the National Curriculum, citizenship andPHSE have a minimum of formal assessment requirements. However, are formal assessment methods the best way to determinewhether students are benefiting from citizenship and PHSE? The purposeof these subjects is to help young people become better adults e.g. toact and behave in a morally and socially responsible manner etc. Thusit is reasonable to argue that formal assessment methods can onlyprovide a superficial measure of a young person’s knowledge andunderstanding of these concepts. What does measuring a person’s abilityto recall facts actually tell us? In reality a person will gain from a well delivered citizenship andPHSE programme in the longer term. They will become a more sociallyresponsible person; they will become a more effective parent and so on.Thus teaching these subjects is in effect an act of faith – we hopethat benefits will be produced in the longer term. A longitudinal studyis required i.e. one where a group of students is tracked for a numberof years. However, there are many factors involved when someone turnsout to a good parent etc. It would be extremely hard to isolate theinfluences of citizenship and PHSE from all the other issues that areinvolved e.g. family background etc. Whilst it is nigh on impossible to assess the long-term benefits peoplegain from these subjects – it is possible to utilise existing learningand teaching methods to generate immediate benefits for the studentsconcerned. How this can be achieved will be analysed in the latterstages of the project. b. To identify examples of good practice and analyse whether they can be applied elsewhere. Has the literature review identify examples of good practice withregard to the teaching of citizenship and PHSE? Given the politicalcontroversy these subjects generate – there can only be one answer tothis question. It depends upon your point of view – determining whethersomething is an example of good practice is in the eye of the beholder.The key to progression is to establish and develop a wider audience forthe objectives you are trying to achieve. For example, the â€Å"Europeanisation process† demonstrates how differentorganisations, individuals etc – by working together, can create forumsfor discussion and the dissemination of new ideas, materials etc. TheInternet has revolutionised how people communicate and accessinformation. This allows people and organisations to bypass nationalboundaries and work towards the creation of â€Å"global citizenship†. Thus if they are going to be meaningful and allow young people toconnect and become part of â€Å"global citizenship† – the academic contentof citizenship and PHSE must reflect current developments. This meansthat learning and teaching methods must continuously evolve to ensurethat the delivery of these subjects reflects current trends anddevelopments. How this can be achieved will be explored in the latterstages of the project. c. To analyse how these subjects and theirinterrelationship will develop in the future and determine how learningand teaching methods will need to change in order to satisfy the newrequirements. A key feature of PHSE is that young people should practice â€Å"safe sex†.In its most literal form this simply means making sure that youngpeople have adequate access to and use of contraceptive methods. Insome quarters it would be argued that â€Å"safe sex† must involve moral,social and emotional responsibilities. Are these areas PHSE orcitizenship concepts? Whatever your view and political stance there isclearly an overlap between the two subjects. Future curricularinitiatives and the development of learning and teaching methods mustembrace the close interrelationship between these academic areas. 3.1 What Must The Research Methodology Achieve? In order to fulfil the requirements of the project objectives the research methodology must address the following issues: a. The analysis of the learning and teaching methods that are beingused to deliver citizenship and PHSE within UK schools in order todetermine their effectiveness. b. The critical evaluation of the assessment strategies that are used to measure pupil attainment within these subjects. c. An evaluation of how learning, teaching and assessment strategiesmust develop to ensure that citizenship and PHSE remain relevant to theneeds of young people. The National Curriculum was introduced in 1988 in order to develop acomprehensive approach to the delivery and development of educationwithin the UK. A number of government departments and agencies areresponsible for managing the content, development, delivery andeffectiveness of the education system. The research methodology mustinvestigate the work of these government departments and agencies inrelation to citizenship and PHSE. This is necessary in order to addressthe issues outlined above. How will this be achieved? The work of three different bodies must be investigated. These are as follows: a. The Department for Education and Skills (DfES) was establishedwith the purpose of creating opportunity, realising potential andachieving excellent for all. The Qualifications Curriculum Authority(QCA) is a non-departmental public body, sponsored by the DfES. It isresponsible for maintaining and developing the National Curriculum andassociated assessments, tests and examinations; and accredits andmonitors qualifications in colleges and at work. It is thisorganisation which is responsible for managing and developing thecurricular content of citizenship and PHSE and providing guidance onlearning and teaching methods. b. The Office for Educational Standards (OFSTED) is the inspectoratefor children and learners in England. Its main responsibility is tocontribute to the provision of better education and care. This isachieved through a comprehensive system of inspection and regulationcovering childcare, schools, colleges, children’s services, teachertraining and youth work. Thus it inspects and evaluates the teaching ofcitizenship and PHSE throughout England. c. The practitioners (i.e. the school managers, teachers, supportworkers etc) are responsible for delivering the curricular content ofcitizenship and PHSE in accordance with the standards and methodsstated and disseminated by the DfES and the QCA. 3.2 What Methods Will The Research Methodology Use? Secondary research is the investigation of data sources which alreadyexist. The main advantage of using such sources is that they arereadily available and can be utilised to develop knowledge andunderstanding of a given situation. Primary research entails generatinginformation, which did not previously exist. This is necessary whensecondary data sources do not fulfil the information requirements of aresearch project. In order to investigate the work of the DfES, QCA and OFSTED, it is notnecessary to conduct primary research. This is because of two reasons.One, the government wants the work of these bodies to be transparentand within the public domain. Two, easily accessible secondary datasources will be sufficient to facilitate the objectives of thisproject. As stated, the websites for the DfES, QCA and OFSTED provideaccess to numerous reports and information on all aspects of theiroperations. Therefore, the research method that will be used to analysethis data is documentary analysis. In effect this involves analysingreports and relating the findings to the project objectives. However, in any given project or area of research different opinionswill prevail. If you like – DfES, QCA and OFSTED represent thegovernment’s views. What does everybody else think? The practitioners –as listed above – are at the sharp end of the business –