Wednesday, February 20, 2019

Analysing the impact of Chinese FDI in Africa: A case study of Nigeria and Ghana.

INTRODUCTION seek ProblemThe proposed query aims to encounter the effect of Chinese external beam Investment (FDI) in gold coast and Nigeria in company to perform a cross- unsophisticated analysis of the respective(prenominal) impacts of much(prenominal) enthr nonp arilments in these countries. gold coast and Nigeria ploughsh be a bite of similar characteristics, which make for a characterful comparison, as it is posited in this study that the similarities in the midst of the two Afri displace countries exit countenance for a cross- provinceal comparison of the impacts of Chinese FDI in these countries. The results of the analysis get bring out be apply to make recommendations on how gold coast and Nigeria should make appropriate use of primary(prenominal)land Chinas FDI to achieve phylogeny in these countries.Analyzing the impact of Chinese FDI in gold coast and Nigeria has been the topic of approximately academic search. However, previous studies urinate ta pered on the individual transactionhips between these African countries and China (SWAC/OECD, 2011). With the rapid changes in the globular coronation funds environment, especially in light of the global recession, it is essential to identify the key determining factors of FDI inflows to gold coast and Nigeria, in fiat to analyze the impact of these FDIs in this region. Although sparing increase has been specified as a learningal goal in this region, academic explore exploring the temperament of the economic relationship between China and gold coast / China and Nigeria suggests that the inflow of FDI into these ontogenesis economies may cave in the effect of retarding the oerall development in these countries, as it prioritizes the exploitation of inseparable re firsts oer essential developmental goals (Oyeranti, et al., 2010).Aims and ObjectivesThis look for has two of import goals. First is to assess the impacts of Chinese FDI in gold coast and Nigeria in order t o conduct a cross- sylvan analysis of their respective economic relationships. Second is to analyze the overall impact of Chinese FDI on the development of these countries.In order to realize the original goals of this study, the following objectives make been placeTo establish a theoretical modeling for analyzing the impacts of FDI in evolution countries, circumstantialally at bottom the place setting of countries in the westside African which take in abundant natural resources To construct a theoretical framework for cadence the impacts of FDI in gold coast and Nigeria, taking into consideration the differences in economic development and coronation modality. To determine the factors influencing the economic relationship between China and gold coast / China and Nigeria, and to analyze these in terms of the established framework. To comp be and lineage the respective impacts of Chinese FDI on Ghana and Nigeria in order to mickle conclusions regarding how to manage an d improve their relationships interrogation QuestionsA clip of research questions has been formulated establish on the main goals and objectives of the study. These questions help to guide the study by ensuring that the analysis girdle concentered on the primary research substance. Below argon the research questions for this studyWhat argon the determinants of FDI impacts in African countries and how atomic number 18 these measured What are the specific impacts of Chinese FDI in Ghana and Nigeria How do these impacts correlate with the determinants identified in question 1 To what extent are the impacts of Chinese FDI in Ghana and Nigeria comparable What cross- commonwealth recommendations can be made in order to ensure that developmental goals and positive determinants of FDI are achieved in some(prenominal) countriesBackground information over delinquent to rapid globalization and the growing inter dependency among countries, FDI has been recognized as genius of the more or less significant means of transnational bully transfers. Over the years, FDI has great(p) to be an essential comp geniusnt in the economic development of numerous nations (Benacek et. al., 2000).Morgan (2003) and Johnson (2005) have highlighted the beneficial impacts that FDI can provide to a array country. These admit (a) generating additional resources much(prenominal) as smashing and technology, to help boost the take of domestic help out orders and deliver better, more affordable goods and services (b) outflow of gentleman resources, management practices and technologies from phalanxile firms to domestic businesses , which enables the host country to improve their operations and agonisticness and (c) improverd involvement of the host country in multinational markets, such as foreign exchange market and outside(a) art. delinquent to the economic egression and welfare that FDI brings to the host country, this investment is preferred by most ontogeny countri es because it str etceteras a faster way to achieve a more advanced level of economic development. However, FDI presents a cope of risks for investors. Due to these risks, countries are compel send to offer tangible incentives, as well as to put supportive regulation and systems in place to draw investors. Unfortunately, most developing nations frequently neglect to build an incentive system for foreign financiers (Botric & Skuflic, 2005). Consequently, the bag of FDI is offered to developed countries such as the US, Germany, and Belgium (UNCTAD, 2011a).Traditionally, investment relationships in Ghana and Nigeria are established with European and American investment take time offners, as these countries are the primary sources of FDI, clientele, and financial and technical assist. These relationships involve a number of bilateral and regional agreements with Nigeria and Ghana. Despite the many years of economic relationships with these countries, in that respect are allevia te differing opinions as to the impact of these investments on the development of Ghana and Nigeria (Tsikata, et al., 2010).FDI in Africa has been increase steadily since 2002 with approximately $53 billion worth of FDI in 2007, representing an increase from 2006 of 47.2%. This increase was the highest recorded level of FDI in Africa at the time. With the global recession, the region of global FDI into Africa has experienced a significant decline from 3.2% in 2006 to 2.9% in 2007. Since then, however, the African deliverance has proved resilient, growing to over $61.9 billion in 2008, and the rate of return on FDI in Africa since 2004 has grown to 12.1%. In addition, mergers and acquisitions in Africa have risen by approximately 157% to $2 billion in 2008 (Oyeranti, et al., 2010).Investment in Nigeria and Ghana by Chinese investors has grown advantageously since 1971 as a result of the complementary nature of their economies. Chinese investment in Ghana has been growing consisten tly in the previous ten dollar bill with significant increase seen from 2004 to 2005, representing $3.09 million and $17.87 million, respectively. Research indicates that the Chinese share, as a percentage of total investment by China in Ghana, implies that FDI is change magnitude (Frimprong, 2012). Investment by the Chinese in Nigeria reveals a similar situation, as Chinese FDI grew twice as much between 2003 and 2005, increasing from $3 billion to $6 billion.Ghana and Nigeria lack significant investments in alkali that is needful to support the development required to result in mensurable economic harvest-home. To this end, China has developed a successful and competent complex body graphic symbol industry, coupled with the ability to provide Nigeria and Ghana with the requisite capital needed to drive this infra expression development (Oyeranti, et al., 2010). In this way, the flow of investment into Ghana and Nigeria is complementary due to the nature and needs of the res pective economies. However, the Chinese industrial enterprise drive and the subsequent inflow of FDI into Chinas sparing has led to rapid growth in the manufacturing sector, which entails the use of oil and mineral inputs that are overwhelming Chinas internal resource capabilities (Ibid). As a result, China is looking to developing nations such as Nigeria and Ghana to concomitant their energy resource requirements to support their growing economy. Consequently, the relationship between Chinese FDI inflows into Ghana and Nigeria are being described as exploitative and as having an upsetting effect on the western sandwich development goals that have been set for the region (Tsikata, et al., 2010).This oppose perception about Chinas pursuance in Nigeria and Ghana are due to the fact that the oil and louse up sector accounts for more than 75% of Chinese investments. This implies that China seeks to exploit Nigerias natural resources. This further suggests that Chinese FDI in Nige ria is a relationship attached to exploitation and is potentially damaging to the developmental goals of the region (Oyeranti, et al., 2010).Despite these negative views, Chinese FDI in Nigeria and Ghana has non been focused solely on the exploitation of natural resources. Chinese FDI has actually helped to achieve significant growth in the manufacturing and services industry in both countries (Frimpong, 2012).The investment climate in Africa has become significantly more attractive as a result of the considerable efforts to liberalize investment regulations and offer incentives for FDI. The result, however, has not been as positive as originally intended due to significant concerns over the economic and political stability of the region.LITERATURE REVIEWFDI descriptionThe analysis of relevant literature has shown that there is not one universally recognized definition of FDI. Nevertheless, the discordant definitions of FDI do not differ considerably. FDI is commonly perceived as each a real phenomenon or a financial phenomenon (Moosa, 2002).Within the purview of a financial phenomenon, FDI is defined asA kind of multinational investment transfer wherein FDI is the outcome of variations in interest rates between two economies, because the country with higher interest levels is more appealing for foreign businesses An external supply of funding for the national economy ? FDI shows the influxes of foreign investment into the nation within a veritable timeframe, which is indicated in the balance of payments A means of reducing and eventually eradicating poverty through FDI-driven economic growth in developing countries, and in Africa, specifically in light of unify Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDG) (Asiedu, 2006)However, when FDI is considered exclusively in financial terms, there seems to be an underestimation of the degree to which FDI is associate with a varied array of return elements. Among the most crucial non-financial inflows are man agerial skills, expertise, and technology. This implies that although financial flows seem to a main component of FDI, it is not necessarily the leading element. Furthermore, according to Moosa (2002) a distinctive characteristic of FDI compared with other kinds of international investments is its function in school management policies and decisions. As such, describing FDI as purely a financial phenomenon appears to disparage this aspect.A more inclusive definition of FDI that is mostly acknowledged by other international organizations (e.g. IMF, Eurostat, UNCTAD) is proposed by OECD. According to the OECD (1999, p.7), FDI reflects the aim of obtaining a last interest by a resident entity of one economy ( identify investor) in an enterprise that is resident of another economy (direct investment enterprise).The term long-wearing interest refers to the formation of a long-standing tie-in concerning the investor and the direct investment governing This overly involves substan tial impacts on the management of such enterprise. A direct investor is the owner of 10% or more of ordinary shares or balloting stock(OECD, 1999, p.8). The IMF recommends applying this requirement of a minimum 10% leave power to split up direct investment vis-a-vis portfolio investment through shareholding. Based from this perspective, a direct investor can be any of the following entities (a) individual, (b) group of rund individuals, (c) establishment, (d) collective or unincorporated company, private or human race, and (e) group of associated companies, incorporated or unincorporated. The entity has a direct investment establishment situated in a country that is not where the direct investor resides (Duce, 2003). shoot for investment enterprise can have any of the subsequent formsSubsidiary ? a direct investor haves greater than 50% of the voting power allocated to shareholders. Controlling the shareholdings can be make either directly or indirectly, via a contrastive subsidiary. The direct investor has the endorsement to secure or terminate members of the Supervisory Board or wariness Board. Associate Company ? a direct investor owns between 10 to 50 % of the voting power allocated to shareholders. Likewise the control of shareholdings can be through with(p) either directly or indirectly. Branch ? a direct investor is also the owner of an unincorporated establishment (whole or joint ownership) in the host country. This can be in several forms, such as a joint venture, an unincorporated partnership, or a permanent office for the direct investor. This may also be in the form of fixed/ fast equipment, movable equipment, property, or constructions located in the host country (OECD, 1999).Choosing a specific kind of direct investment business also depends on antithetic considerations, the most significant of which is the present law in the host country (Duce, 2003). In considering the impact of Chinese FDI in Ghana and Nigeria, it is effective to consider the form of investment that FDI takes, with regard to the respective economies. Based from prelim research, it is clear that Chinese FDI in Nigeria is significantly higher than its FDI in Ghana, when compared to one another.Considering the high concentration of FDI in the oil and gas sector, it is possible that the economic relationship between Nigeria and Chinese may be contradictory to the developmental goals and overall well-being of the country. Whilst Chinese FDI in Ghana is seen across a variety of sectors such as aluminum, iron ore, manganese, alloy, timber, waste materials, cocoa beans, cotton linters, and frozen fish (Rahman, 2012). This indicates that the overall impacts of Chinese FDI in Ghana may be more attuned to developmental goals, compared to Chinas relationship with Nigeria.FDI determinants conjectural ApproachAs FDI became a focal point in the real global economy, researchers have attempted to describe the conduct of multinational firms and FDI de terminants through the proposal of different theories.Adam Smith (Concept of Absolute Advantages) and David Ricardo (Theory of relative Advantages) had originally discussed FDI as a feature of international softwood. Smith and Ricardo proposed that countries should focus on producing goods where they can offer a cost advantage (i.e. absolute advantage for Smith comparative advantage for Ricardo). The surplus of goods generated by a country is intended for export. Simultaneously, the country imports goods that it cannot find domestically because it lacks cost advantages for their production (Sen, 2010). The theories of Smith and Ricardo are the foundations of current views on FDI. Therefore, these lead be considered in the design of the theoretical framework.Heckscher and Olin conjugated international patronage in and with the benefits brought by the factors of production. Thus, a country must focus in producing final goods of which the raw materials are reasonably plentiful in the country. Conversely, the country is recommended to import the basic components of goods that are in limited supply. This speculation regards FDI as a component of transnational capital movement. FDI flows are seen amongst economies and are described by various capital concentrations. Countries that are well-off in terms of capital transfer their production to countries that have abundant compass supply. This is characterized by more returns to capital and lesser returns to tire. This process continues till labor and capital are equalized in the countries involved (Benacek et al., 2000). While these theories were able to associate FDI with labor costs and higher rates of investment returns, these were unable to tout ensemble rationalize FDI phenomenon (Assuncao, 2010). As such, these give not be fully use in the creation of this studys theoretical framework.Another FDI opening is given by Kindleberger (1969), who presumes that direct investment can be civilised in situa tions where market shortcomings or government interferences exist. In this context, particular economies produce commodities in which they can demonstrate a comparative advantage man other products are exported because the country cannot produce them efficiently. Thus, the relationship between FDI and grapple can be either substitutable or complementary. Kindlebergers (1969) hypothesis is applicable to the context of Ghana and Nigeria because of its considerations of market imperfections and government interventions. These exit be helpful in pardoning some aspects of the theoretical framework.Obstacles to commerce may modify FDI in two contradictory ways. On one hand, high trade barriers tend to boost FDI because these result in high export costs. This contention stresses the location advantage aspect of FDI. In contrast, high trade barriers are a hindrance for the parent company, especially in situations with high levels of trade with associated firms. Other researchers have also discussed the relationship between FDI and trade bareness (Balasubramanyam et al., 1996) and majority of studies find a positive association among these variables (Benacek, 2000).Dunning (1993) combined the components of stack Theory and the Theory of the Firm. Based on the OLI model, Dunning (1993) classified FDI determinants into three groups. These are (a) Ownership-specific advantages such as technology and know-how (b) billet-specific advantages including market size, transport costs, etc. and (c) Advantages that are particular to internationalization, wherein the firm supposes that selling of ownership advantages to third parties is not as lucrative as internally employing these advantages. Moreover, Dunning (1993) came up with the Investment Development travel plan based from the findings of his study. This framework identified five introduces in the development of a country. These stages have a substantial effect on FDI inflows (Gorynia et al., 2005 Benacek et al. , 2000). These stages of development exit be one of the components in the theoretical framework thus, this study is important to this research cipher.The institutional court presents a different perspective on the subject. Root & Ahmed (1978) and Bond & Samuelson (1986) suggested that the environment, where the enterprise conducts its operations, is unpredictable and unsure. Thus, the firms decisions will be greatly affected by institutional forces (i.e. regulations and incentives). However, in actuality, government polity defines the options that are presented to a company and which influences the firms decisions regarding FDI, licensing, and exporting (Assuncao, 2010). The role of government in FDI is another aspect which will be explored in the theoretical framework. The institutional approach will be part of this analysis.Last but not least, it is beneficial to consider Ozawas (1992) study, which connects the patterns in developing countries with Porters theory of a country s competitive advantages. According to Porter, there are quartet groups of attributes that can be applied to a country. These are (a) factor conditions (b) demand conditions (c) firm strategy, structure and rivalry and (d) related and supported enterprises. These have an influence on the nations competitiveness (Smith, 2012). Ozawa argues that the foreign investment received by developing countries, which are mainly allocated to labor-intensive sectors, results in a process of attainment and technology purchase. It aids developing economies to raise their competitive advantages and thus, push the economy onward along the various stages of development ? moving from the fundamental factor-driven stage to the innovation-driven stage. This is described by an increasing external FDI (Ozawa, 1992). The discussion on competitive advantage is again a major component of the theoretical framework which will be the outcome of this research. As such, the study by Ozawa (1992) presents some arg uments that are crucial to the discussion of this research.FDI determinants ClassificationDunning (1998) identified four groups of FDI motives. The first two groups of motives are features of the initial stage of FDI, while other groups are related to sequential FDI (Gorynia et. al., 2005).Resource Seeking the firm intends to obtain specific resources at less costs than in the local/national market commercialize Seeking the firm intends to operate in a specific foreign market because of its size or anticipated growth. The firm builds a global strategy for the foreign market, or reduces the expenditures related to serving a certain market from a neighboring facility instead of from outside the country Efficiency Seeking the firm intends to justify its production, distribution, and marketing (Gorynia et. al., 2005, p.65) Strategic plus Seeking the firm seeks to extend its strategic goals for instance, supporting their competitiveness in international marketsClause (1999) and C alderon et al., (2002) categorized FDI determinants in two groups (a) Push factors or investors intentions to position capital/investment overseas (b) Pull factors or country-specific determinants, also referred to as location determinants. These factors influence the decision of the investor to find capital in a specific country. Additionally, pull factors are political, including growth estimates, or the countrys system of rules/regulations and rewards/incentives. The authors also highlighted other pull elements in the case of transitional economies. These include the process of privatization and the intensification effect, in which a direct investment results in other direct investments (Vita and Kyaw, 2008).Lastly, UNCTAD (2011a) segregated FDI determinants into three categories (a) policy framework such as economic and political stability, competition policy, etc. (b) business facilitations, including the costs of business operations, investment motivations, etc. and (c) econom ic determinants such as market growth and infrastructure. Although these determinants help to ascertain the overall desirability of the country, the significance of specific groups differs depending on the sector and entry modes.The various FDI determinants will be explored as components of the theoretical framework. These will be investigated to find out which FDI determinants are applicable to the Ghanaian and Nigerian context.Investment Climate in Ghana and Nigeria A Comparative AnalysisAttracting increasing amounts of FDI has been a significant priority of Ghanas government when developing and reforming economic policy. The Ghana Investment consultive Council (GIAC) was formed with the help of the earth Bank and is comprised of local and multinational companies and institutional observers from around the universe. The aim of the GIAC is to ensure the removal of any regulations, which may warn FDI in the country. The GIAC, however, does not have regulatory power over the na tural resources sector, but does regulate investment in all other sectors, such as banking and other financial institutions, telecommunications, energy and real estate (Tsikata, et al., 2010). The most beneficial element of the investment climate in Ghana is that there is no oecumenic economic or industrial strategy aimed at discriminating against foreign owned business or subsidiaries, but conversely there are incentives offered if the projects are deemed critical for national development.Prior to 1995, Nigeria was considered one of the most unsuitable countries in Western African for FDI due to a combination of considerable restrictions and unsuitable investment climate ? the result of social, economic, and political tensions that continue to plague the country. In 1995, however, Nigeria changed the investment climate substantially by opening the economy to FDI and reversing these severe restrictions. The Nigerian Investment Promotion accusation (NIPC) was created to manage the approval of business licenses and motivations to improve the investment climate. All restrictions on limits in foreign shareholding were also abolished in order to promote and promote FDI. According to current Nigerian investment law, 100 % foreign ownership of firms is allowed in every sector, with the exception of the petroleum sector. In this sector, investments are limit to existing joint ventures or new production share contracts (Oyeranti, et al., 2010). This, however, is not necessarily a restrictive provision specific to Nigeria, since production sharing contracts have become a modern way of ensuring that ownership over natural resources is held by the host nation.It is evident, therefore, that both the Ghanaian and Nigerian investment climates are conducive and receptive to FDI from China. In determining the potential impacts of these investments on the economies of the country, it seems evident that there is a need and desire for large capital investments. At the same t ime, there is the need to stay in control of their natural resources, namely oil and minerals, which has resulted in the only restriction on FDI in the respective economies. The crucial difference between the two countries is the extensive superiority of Nigeria with regards to their oil resources and the far- compass effects that this has had on the country as a whole. This factor must, therefore, be critically considered to assess the impact of Chinese FDI in the country.Chinese Interest in West Africa FDI AnalysisChina provides an ideal investment partner to African countries and is often more beneficial to the host nation that traditional investment partners for a number of reasons, including fewer demands on the host country in exchange for investment, fewer conditions for assistance, offered assistance at lower rates of quittance and lower interest rates, and offered training for technical and professional personnel in doing so (technology transfer) (Renard, 2011). Historic ally, the interest in Africa from the Chinese perspective has been primarily based on the need to supplement their own natural resources, with the rapid development of their manufacturing industry necessitating a significant amount of resources far outweighing any domestic production in China itself and with an abundance of these resources in West Africa, China sought to increase their investment in and trade participation within the region. In 1987, China exempted raw materials and other components due for re-export from custom duties which bolstered their international trade with African countries as being a significant source of these products and raw materials (Renard, 2011). With the Chinese accession to the WTO, the protectionist barriers were further removed and this served to increase trade even further. Trade in components is therefore a significant part of Chinese interest in West Africa, as well as raw materials in exchange for consumer products with low capital intensity with a commitment to moving towards more technology-intensive products.In addition to the trade investment in West Africa, diplomacy in the region has focused on bilateral agreements with African governments. In 1994, the Exim Bank (China Export-Import Bank) was founded to encourage Chinese exports and FDI in Africa, with a specific focus on improving the infrastructure (Wang, 2007). On the other hand, China Development Bank (CDB), also established in 1994, opened the China-Africa Development Fund to assist Chinese FDI distribution into Africa, through the financing of Chinese firms looking to invest in the region. Finally, SINOSURE (China Export and character reference Insurance Corporation) provides these firms with insurance and protects against the risks associated with Chinese exports and foreign investment (Renard, 2011). These banks have a less risk-sensitive profile than most private banks in traditional Western investment partners, making them more willing to encourage to investment in often high-risk African countries, including Nigeria.The opportunity to invest in Africa by Chinese firms is as a result of the long-standing history of trade relations and supported by less risk-sensitive banks. These banks aim to encourage FDI in West African countries in order to sustain and potentially increase trade relations with the Chinese economy. With many of the major players in the Chinese economy being state-owned (as a result of the prevailing political regime), there is a significant interest in encouraging FDI with these West African countries due to Chinas desire to sustain its high economic growth. This supports the main assumption of this research that Chinas FDIs into Ghana and Nigeria are exploitative in nature. Because Chinas desire to sustain its economic growth as the main driving factor for its FDI, there is a lot of suspicion that Chinese state-owned investors will not care about the long-term effects of FDI, especially as it focuses on extr acting natural resources and raw materials from Ghana and Nigeria.METHODOLOGYResearch PhilosophyThis study applies the positivist philosophy, based on the presumption that experiment and observance are highly significant in perceiving human behavior. According to this philosophy, the world can be understood in a rational way. This approach focuses on analyzing facts and seeks to understand connections reduces experience to simple components and tests formulated hypotheses. It usually produces soft selective information, which seeks to be unbiased and precise (Saunders et. al., 2009).Research ApproachThis study is empirical and it acknowledges the significance of meeting and utilizing selective information, to achieve precise and clear conclusions. Inductive and deductive research approaches will be employed in the study.The deductive approach is described as highly structured. Theories of FDI motivations are first presented, since they are especially relevant to the Chinese FDI c limate. Next, the relevance of these theories to both Ghana and Nigeria is discussed through the analysis of empirical selective information. An inductive approach is observed throughout the gathering and examination of empirical data from trustworthy sources. From this perspective, the researcher analyses the data obtained by others, which has been integrated with the research procedures. granted the research objectives, this study has an explanatory quality . Explanatory research aims to explain if there is an association among two or more variables of a specific incident or phenomenon.The aim of this study is to ascertain whether there is an association between FDI inflows from China to Ghana and Nigeria use a framework for the meter of these impacts based on economic, political or social factors which may be influenced by foreign investments.Data Collection ProcessPrimary and substitute data will be gathered to analyze the possible impacts of FDI inflows from China. Selected economic indicators will also be analyzed using multiple regression analysis.This research will examine the following economic indicators GDP growth rates GDP per capita flash rates employment rates unit labor costs trade balances (represented as a percentage of GDP) foreign exchange rates somatic Income Tax Rates percentage of people with higher education developmental goals identified by the host country and other international bodies, and public spending on higher education.The data that will be used in this research will be taken from several different substitute(prenominal) research sites. Data sources are national statistics, scholarly publications, UNDP, IMF and the World Bank, as well as any other directed research that is seeking to understand the relationship between Chinese FDI and its impacts in Ghana and Nigeria countries.Limitations of ResearchThe current research is limited to the extent that Ghana and Nigeria are congruous in conducting the comparative analysis. The main concern is that the vast difference in the oil dependency of these two countries will lead to a number of conclusions, which are not compatible with one another, due to the fact that the Nigerian economy revolves around oil production. It is reasonable, therefore, to think that the occupation of this theory to Ghana may lead to conclusions or recommendations for improvement, which cannot be applied to the Nigerian context due to its resource dependency and the influence of the social, political and economic climate. In order to mitigate this limitation, the researcher aims to look specifically at the dependence on natural resources (mineral and oil) in the Ghanaian economy in order to ensure that this factor is given sufficient consideration in reaching the conclusions of this theoretical research.Secondary PublicationsPublished secondary resources will also be utilized in this study. These sources discussed FDI determinants from a general perspective and presented global outflows of FDI from China. These also analyzed the general determinants of FDI impacts in Africa as a developing region, with a specific focus on Ghana and Nigeria, and compared these impacts against one another to determine recommendations for the improvement or mitigation of FDI impacts. The application of secondary data in addressing the objectives of this research will add to the overall clarity of the research. Secondary data will be gathered by studying documents from various sources, such as international organizations and statistics offices. Other materials are peer-reviewed articles, research papers, books, and other scholarly publications. These will aid in recognizing and incorporating the most relevant literature within the context of the main research questions.Limitations of Secondary SourcesThere are some limitations in using secondary sources. One limitation is that it involves the possibility of incurring knowledge gaps. This refers to the occasions when researche rs are unable to find the specific data they are looking for. Moreover, data might be outdated or is not relevant to the research problem. Furthermore, the researcher might find contradictory points of view in the secondary data, which will result in confusion and ambiguities.To lessen these kinds of risks, the researcher will seek the advice and guidance of academic staff specializing in this research subject regarding suggestions on literature. The researcher will also come up with a comprehensive list of international databases of FDI to find the most current data.Data AnalysisThe data analyses that will be applied in this research are comprised of four important steps.Data will be arranged in a rational way. The arrangement of primary and secondary data is based on the selection process (based on the researchers judgment). Data will be sorted into three categories. The categories are as follows (a) Theoretical application of FDI in a Chinese context (b) Ghanaian and Nigerian inv estment climate and context (c) the relationship between Chinese FDI and the Ghanaian and Nigerian political, social, and economic factors. Data will then be analyzed using a number of qualitative research techniques. Results will be unionized in terms of theoretical FDI themes identified in the initial research. language PLANBelow is the Gantt chart for the dissertation. This outlines the main activities that will be conducted for this research. pop out TasksStartDuration Task 1 paternity the research proposal05 Task 2 Writing the project plan55 Task 3 Conducting the literature review1014 Task 4 convocation of secondary data247 Task 5 Creation of theoretical framework3120 Task 6 Analysis of the data5114 Task 7 Writing the final research report6514 scoreStart Represents the number of days from the start date of the research projectDuration The number of days required to complete the task REFERENCES Asiedu, S. (2006) strange like a shot Investment in Africa The graphic symbol of Natural Resources, Market Size, regime polity, Institutions and Political Instability. coupled Nations University Publication online Available on http//www.people.ku.edu/jbrown/virus.html Accessed 1 April 2013Assuncao, S., Forte, R. and Teixeira, A. (2011) Location determinants of FDI a literature review. Porto FEP.Benacek, V., Gronicki M., Holland, D. and Sass, M. (2000) The Determinants and Impact of Foreign Direct Investments in telephone exchange and Eastern Europe A Comparison Survey and Econometric say. ledger of United Nations. 9(3). Pp. 163-212.Bevan, A. and Estrin S. (2004). The Determinants of Foreign Direct Investments into European Transition Economies. Journal of Comparative Studies.32. Pp.775-787.Botric, V. and Skuflic, L. (2005) Main determinants of Foreign Direct Investments in the South East European Countries. Zagreb Institute of Economic.Calderon, C.L. and Serven, L. (2002) Greenfield FDI vs. Mergers and Acquisitions. Does the distinction matterChile Cen tral Bank of Chile.Duce, M. (2003) Definition of Foreign Direct Investment a methodological note. Madrid Banco de Espana.Dunning, J.H. (1993) Multinational Enterprise and the global Economy. Essex Addison-Wesley Publication Company.Frimprong, S. (2012) Research on Relationship between China and Ghana Trade and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Journal of Economics and sustainable Development, 3(7), pp. 51 61Gorynia, M., Nowak J. and Wolniak R. (2005) Motives and Modes of FDI, Firm Characteristics and Performance field of study essay of Foreign Subsidiaries in Poland. Journal of Transitional Management.10 (3). Pp.55-87.Johnson, A. (2005) The effects of FDI inflows on host country economic growth. Jonkoping Jonkoping International Business School.Moosa, I. (2002) Foreign Direct Investment Theory, Evidence and Practice. NY Palgrave Macmillan.Morgan, T. (2005) How does FDI affect host country developmentUsing industry case studies to make authoritative generalizations. In Morgan T. , Graham, E. and Blomstrom, M., Does Foreign Direct Investment promotes developmentWashington Institute for International Economics.OECD (1999) OECD benchmark definition of Foreign Direct Investment.3rd edition. Paris OECD.Oyeranti, O., Babatunde, A., Ogunkola, E. & Bankole, A. (2010) Chinese-Africa Investment Relations Case Study of Nigeria. Nairobi African Economic Research ConsortiumOzawa, T. (1992) Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Development. Transnational corporations. 1(1). Pp. 27-54.Rahman, M. (2012) Political Economy of Chinas Foreign Direct Investment in Ghana. GhanaWeb online Available on http//www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/artikel.php?ID=236093 Accessed 1 April 2013Renard, M. (2011) Chinas Trade and FDI in Africa. African Development Bank, working Paper Series, no. 126. Belvedere African Development BankSaunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2009), Research methods for business students. 5th Ed. Harlow FT Prentice-Hall.Sen, S. (2010) Internationa l Trade Theory and Policy A review of the literature. NY Levy Economic Institute.Smit, A.J. (2010) The Competitive Advantages of Nations Is Porters Diamond Framework a New Theory That Explains The International fight of CountriesSouthern African Business Review.14. Pp.105-130.Tsikata, D., Fenny, A. & Aryeetey, E. (2010) Impact of China-Africa Investment Relations An In-depth Analysis of the Case of Ghana. Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research University of Ghana African Research ConsortiumUNCTAD (2011a) World Investment Report 2011.Non-equity modes of international production and development. NY United Nations.UNCTAD (2011b) World Investment Prospect Survey2011-2013.NY United Nations.Vita, G. and Kyaw, K. (2008) Determinants of FDI and Portfolio Flows to Developing Countries. A bloodshed co-integration analysis. European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences, 13.Pp. 161-168.Wang, J. (2007) What Drives China Growing Role in Africa. IMF Working P aper, WP/07/211. International Monetary Fund, African Department.

No comments:

Post a Comment