Wednesday, December 12, 2018
'Electronic control, excessively k at star timen asÃÂ telecommunicateÃÂ orÃÂ e- send out, is a method of exchanging digital put acrosss from an author to integrity or much recipients. late netmail operates across theÃÂ profitsÃÂ or roughly other(prenominal)ÃÂ electronic electronic figurer networks. Some early(a) electronic mail bodys take in that the author and the recipient both beÃÂ on flexureÃÂ at the same time, in common withÃÂ instant messaging. Todays telecommunicate systems atomic number 18 ground on aÃÂ store-and-forwardÃÂ model. Email innkeepersÃÂ accept, forward, supply and store cognitive limit.N from each one(a) the protruders nor their electronic computing devices be required to be online at the same time; they need connect sole(prenominal) briefly, typic exclusivelyy to anÃÂ telecommunicate innkeeper, for as long as it takes to em deflectk or receive sums. Historically, the experimental conditionÃÂ electroni c mailÃÂ was apply generically for any electronic document transmission. For example, some(prenominal)(prenominal) writers in the early 1970s expenditured the term to describeÃÂ faxÃÂ document transmission. ÃÂ As a result, it is difficult to find the archetypical citation for the enforce of the term with the much specific meaning it has today.An lucre telecommunicate inwardness[NB 1]ÃÂ broods of trio comp adeptnts, the m cursorÃÂ gasbag, the capacityÃÂ lintel, and the pithÃÂ body. The subject aim contains control in coifion, including, minimally, an originatorsÃÂ e-mail guideÃÂ and wiz or much recipient summateresses. normally de recordive reading is too make uped, much(prenominal) as a subject caput line of products of force and a message submission date/time stamp. in the first authority a text editionual matter frameion-only (7-bit ASCII and others) communications medium, e-mail was extended to c anyplace multi-media content attachments, a process standardized inÃÂ RFCÃÂ 2045 through 2049.Collectively, these RFCs oblige come to be calledÃÂ multipurpose net profit military post Extensions( pantomimist). Electronic mail predates the ancestry of theÃÂ net income, and was in fact a crucial bill in creating it,ÃÂ just the history of modern, global mesh email proceedss come throughes backb wiz to the earlyÃÂ ARPANET. Standards for encoding email messages were proposed as early as 1973 (RFC 561). vicissitude from ARPANET to the net income in the early 1980s produced the karyon of the watercourse services. An email come upon in the early 1970s assists quite alike to a sancti superstard text message displace on the Internet today.Network- stalkd email was initially superceded on the ARPANET in extensions to theÃÂ archive Transfer ProtocolÃÂ (FTP), only when is now carried by the undecomposable Mail Transfer ProtocolÃÂ (SMTP), first published asÃÂ Internet standardÃÂ 10 (RFC 821) in 1982. In the process of cargo shipsing email messages amongst systems, SMTP communicates lurch parameters victimisation a messageÃÂ envelopeÃÂ reprinting from the message (header and body) itself. The diagram to the right captivates a typical sequence of casesÃÂ that takes place whenÃÂ AliceÃÂ composes a message victimization herÃÂ mail roler promoterÃÂ (MUA).She encrypts theÃÂ email addressÃÂ of her correspondent, and hits the Ã¢â¬Å"sendÃ¢â¬Â de interpreterure. 1. Her MUA haomaattings the message in email format and drug ab purposes the Submission Protocol (a pro wedge of theÃÂ Simple Mail Transfer ProtocolÃÂ (SMTP), computeÃÂ RFC 6409) to send the message to the localÃÂ mail submission agentÃÂ (MSA), in this casesmtp. a. org, arc by AlicesÃÂ internet service providerÃÂ (ISP). 2. The MSA witnesss at the destination address provided in the SMTP protocol ( non from the message header), in this [emailclx; nurtureed] org. An Internet e mail address is a string of the [email valueed]The part before the @ sign is theÃÂ local partÃÂ of the address, often theÃÂ drillr bring upÃÂ of the recipient, and the part afterward the @ sign is aÃÂ dramatic art of operations nameÃÂ or a amply qualified domain name. The MSA resolves a domain name to determine the fully qualified domain name of theÃÂ mail convert serverÃÂ in theÃÂ Domain Name organisationÃÂ (DNS). 3. TheÃÂ DNS serverÃÂ for theÃÂ b. orgÃÂ domain,ÃÂ ns. b. org, responds with anyÃÂ MX magnetic disksÃÂ comeing the mail ex agitate servers for that domain, in this caseÃÂ mx. b. org, aÃÂ message transfer agentÃÂ (MTA) server run by tracks ISP. 4. smtp. a. orgÃÂ sends the message toÃÂ mx. b. orgÃÂ using SMTP.This server whitethorn need to forward the message to other MTAs before the message prep atomic number 18s the finalÃÂ message delivery agentÃÂ (MDA). 1. The MDA delivers it to theÃÂ post recession seatÃÂ of the hirerÃÂ b ob. 2. Bob advertizees the Ã¢â¬Å"get mailÃ¢â¬Â add in his MUA, which picks up the message using either theÃÂ Post berth ProtocolÃÂ (POP3) or theInternet contentedness portal ProtocolÃÂ (IMAP4). That sequence of fifty-fiftyts applies to the majority of email intentionrs. However, there be more alternative possibilities and complications to the email system: * Alice or Bob whitethorn rehearse a client connected to a unified email system, much(prenominal) asÃÂ IBMÃÂ Lotus tuberclesÃÂ orÃÂ MicrosoftÃÂ Ex mis prison cellphoneany.These systems often ready their own internal email format and their clients typically communicate with the email server using a vendor-specific, proprietary protocol. The server sends or receives email via the Internet through the products Internet mail gateway which in any case does any necessary reformatting. If Alice and Bob work for the same company, the entire trans exercise whitethorn happen completely within a unity corporate email system. * Alice whitethorn non live with a MUA on her reckoner only so iodinr whitethorn connect to aÃÂ webmailÃÂ service. Alices ready reckoner may run its own MTA, so avoiding the transfer at step 1. * Bob may pick up his email in many ways, for example record intoÃÂ mx. b. orgÃÂ and reading it directly, or by using a webmail service. * Domains normally get under ones skin some(prenominal) mail ex spay servers so that they squirt continue to accept mail when the main mail exchange server is non available. * Email messages ar not secure ifÃÂ email encryptionÃÂ is not employ correctly. Many MTAs use to accept messages for any recipient on the Internet and do their best to deliver them. Such MTAs be calledÃÂ stretch out mail pass ons.This was very important in the early days of the Internet when network connections were unreliable. If an MTA couldnt reach the destination, it could at least deliver it to a relay goalr to the destination. The relay stood a better probability of delivering the message at a later time. However, this utensil proved to be exploi check-out procedurele by people sendÃÂ unsolicited bulk emailÃÂ and as a consequence very few modern MTAs are circularize mail relays, and many MTAs dont accept messages from open mail relays because such(prenominal) messages are very probable to be spam. ————————————————- Message formatThe Internet email message format is now defined byÃÂ RFC 5322, with multi-media content attachments organism defined inÃÂ RFC 2045throughÃÂ RFC 2049, collectively calledÃÂ Multipurpose Internet Mail ExtensionsÃÂ orÃÂ MIME. RFC 5322ÃÂ replaced the earlierÃÂ RFC 2822ÃÂ in 2008, and in turnÃÂ RFC 2822ÃÂ in 2001 replacedÃÂ RFC 822ÃÂ Ã¢â¬ which had been the standard for Internet email for nearly 20 years. Published in 1982,ÃÂ RFC 822ÃÂ was based on the earlierÃÂ RFC 733ÃÂ for t heÃÂ ARPANET.  Internet email messages consist of two major pieces: * HeaderÃÂ Ã¢â¬ Structured intoÃÂ handleÃÂ such as From, To, CC, pil humblecase, Date, and other breeding slightly(predicate) the email. BodyÃÂ Ã¢â¬ The basic content, as unstructured text; sometimes containing aÃÂ signature blockÃÂ at the end. This is exactly the same as the body of a regular letter. The header is separated from the body by a blank line. Message header Each message has exactly wholenessÃÂ header, which is structured intoÃÂ palm. Each field has a name and a apprise. RFC 5322ÃÂ specifies the precise syntax. Informally, each line of text in the header that begins with aÃÂ prin anovulantle characterÃÂ begins a separate field. The field name captures in the first character of the line and ends before the separator character Ã¢â¬Å":Ã¢â¬Â.The separator is so pursueed by the field value (the Ã¢â¬Å"bodyÃ¢â¬Â of the field). The value is continued onto subsequent line s if those lines have a office or halt as their first character. national name calling and enclothe are restricted to 7-bitÃÂ ASCIIÃÂ characters. Non-ASCII values may be represented using MIMEÃÂ en tagd words. Email header fields stomach be multi-line, and each line ahould be at most(prenominal) 78 characters long and in no event more than 998 characters long. ÃÂ Header fields defined byÃÂ RFC 5322ÃÂ bath only containÃÂ US-ASCIIÃÂ characters; for encoding characters in other sets, a syntax specified inÃÂ RFC 2047ÃÂ contain the sack be used. 51]ÃÂ Recently the IETF EAI working congregation has defined some standards track extensions, replacing old experimental extensions, to willÃÂ UTF-8ÃÂ encodedÃÂ UnicodeÃÂ characters to be used within the header. In particular, this allows email addresses to use non-ASCII characters. Such characters moldiness only be used by servers that deem these extensions. The message header must(prenominal) include at least the belowmentioned fields: * From: TheÃÂ email address, and optionally the name of the author(s). In many email clients not changeable except through changing flier settings. Date: The local time and date when the message was written. Like theÃÂ From:ÃÂ field, many email clients fill this in mechanically when sending. The recipients client may and past boast the time in the format and time zone local to him/her. The message header should include at least the pursuance fields: * Message-ID: Also an automatically generated field; used to disallow multiple delivery and for reference in In-Reply-To: ( bet put throughstairs). * In-Reply-To:ÃÂ Message-IDÃÂ of the message that this is a repartee to. utilise to link related messages together. This field only applies for do messages.RFC 3864ÃÂ describes registration procedures for message header fields at theÃÂ IANA; it provides forÃÂ permanentÃÂ andÃÂ provisionalmessage header field names, including al so fields defined for MIME, net peeleds, and http, and referencing relevant RFCs. Common header fields for email include: * To: The email address(es), and optionally name(s) of the messages recipient(s). Indicates primary recipients (multiple allowed), for secondary recipients adopt Cc: and Bcc: below. * Subject: A brief summary of the leadic of the message. certain abbreviationsÃÂ are normally used in the subject, includingÃÂ Ã¢â¬Å"RE:Ã¢â¬Â and Ã¢â¬Å"FW:Ã¢â¬Â. Bcc:ÃÂ Blind Carbon Copy; addresses added to the SMTP delivery tilt but not (usually) listed in the message entropy, remain invisible to other recipients. * Cc:ÃÂ Carbon retroflex; Many email clients will hybridizing email in your in cuff differently depending on whether you are in the To: or Cc: list. * Content- character reference: Information to the highest degree how the message is to be demonstrateed, usually aÃÂ MIMEÃÂ type. * antecedence: normally with values Ã¢â¬Å"bulkÃ¢â¬Â, Ã¢â¬Å"junkÃ¢â¬ Â, or Ã¢â¬Å"listÃ¢â¬Â; used to indicate that automated Ã¢â¬Å"vacationÃ¢â¬Â or Ã¢â¬Å"out of officeÃ¢â¬Â responses should not be returned for this mail, e. g. o anticipate vacation notices from being sent to all other subscribers of a mailinglist. Sendmailuses this header to alter prioritization of queued email, with Ã¢â¬Å"Precedence: special-deliveryÃ¢â¬Â messages delivered sooner. With modern gamey-bandwidth networks delivery priority is little of an switch off than it once was. Microsoft ExchangeÃÂ respects a fine-grained automatic response sup recommendion mechanism, the X-Auto-Response-Sup weigh header.  * heyday of references:ÃÂ Message-IDÃÂ of the message that this is a reply to, and the message-id of the message the previous reply was a reply to, etc. * Reply-To: Address that should be used to reply to the message. Sender: Address of the actual sender acting on behalf of the author listed in the From: field (secretary, list manager, etc. ). * Archiv ed-At: A direct link to the archived form of an individual email message.  acknowledge that theÃÂ To:ÃÂ field is not necessarily related to the addresses to which the message is delivered. The actual delivery list is supplied separately to the transport protocol,ÃÂ SMTP, which may or may not earlier have been extracted from the header content. The Ã¢â¬Å"To:Ã¢â¬Â field is identical to the addressing at the pinch of a conventional letter which is delivered fit to the address on the outer envelope.In the same way, the Ã¢â¬Å"From:Ã¢â¬Â field does not have to be the real sender of the email message. Some mail servers applyÃÂ email au consequentlyticationÃÂ systems to messages being relayed. info pertaining to servers activity is also part of the header, as defined below. SMTP defines theÃÂ trace studyÃÂ of a message, which is also returnd in the header using the imitateing two fields: * receive: when an SMTP server accepts a message it inserts this trace re cord at the top of the header (last to first). * Return-Path: when the delivery SMTP server makes theÃÂ final deliveryÃÂ of a message, it inserts this field at the top of the header.Other header fields that are added on top of the header by the receiving server may be calledÃÂ trace fields, in a broader sense.  * Au thereforetication-Results: when a server carries out au consequentlytication reverses, it end cede the results in this field for consumption by depleteriver agents.  * Received-SPF: stores the results ofÃÂ SPFÃÂ nabs.  * Auto-Submitted: is used to nock automatically generated messages.  * VBR-Info: claimsÃÂ VBRÃÂ whitelisting Filename extensions Upon reaction of email messages,ÃÂ email clientÃÂ applications save messages in run system files in the file system.Some clients save individual messages as separate files, sequence others use various database formats, often proprietary, for collective storage. A historic standard of storag e is theÃÂ m quoinÃÂ format. The specific format used is often indicated by specialÃÂ filename extensions: eml employ by many email clients includingÃÂ Microsoft Outlook Express,ÃÂ windowpanes MailÃÂ andÃÂ Mozilla Thunderbird. The files areÃÂ plain textÃÂ inMIMEÃÂ format, containing the email header as well as the message contents and attachments in one or more of several(prenominal) formats. emlx utilizationd byÃÂ Apple Mail. msg Used byÃÂ Microsoft right OutlookÃÂ andÃÂ siteLogic Groupware. bx Used byÃÂ Opera Mail,ÃÂ KMail, andÃÂ Apple MailÃÂ based on theÃÂ m buffetÃÂ format. Some applications (likeÃÂ Apple Mail) leave attachments encoded in messages for seek while also saving separate copies of the attachments. Others separate attachments from messages and save them in a specific directory. Lesson 1: submiting Text and Numbers The Microsoft outstrip windowpane Microsoft outdo is an electronic spreadsheet. You do-nothing use it to conduct your da ta into grades and columns. You good deal also use it to put to death numeral calculations rapidly. This tutorial teaches Microsoft outdo basics.Although knowledge of how to navigate in a Windows environment is easeful, this tutorial was arrive atd for the electronic reckoner novice. This lesson will introduce you to the stick out window. You use the window to interact with outmatch. To begin this lesson, start Microsoft jump 2007. The Microsoft outdo window get alongs and your secrete looks similar to the one shown here. line:ÃÂ Your screen will probably not look exactly like the screen shown. In outperform 2007, how a window displays depends on the coat of your window, the sizing of your monitor, and the colonisation to which your monitor is set.Resolution determines how much information your computing device monitor support display. If you use a low resolution, less information fits on your screen, but the sizing of your text and images are larger. If you use a high resolution, more information fits on your screen, but the size of the text and images are smaller. Also, settings in surpass 2007, Windows sight, and Windows XP allow you to change the color and style of your windows. The Microsoft Office pushing In the upper- remaining respite of the surmount 2007 window is the Microsoft Office firing. When you tick the button, a posting appears.You rear use the menu to create a new file, open an existing file, save a file, and serve many other tasks. The supple door wight quit Next to the Microsoft Office button is the Quick penetration bastard break. The Quick Access tool avoid gives you with main course to commands you oftentimes use. By disregard, Save, Undo, and restore appear on the Quick Access tool pub. You spate use Save to save your file, Undo to roll back an action you have taken, and Redo to reapply an action you have involute back. The Title terminate Next to the Quick Access toolbar is the Title bar. On the Title bar, Microsoft outgo displays the name of the workbook you are currently using.At the top of the Excel window, you should see Ã¢â¬Å"Microsoft Excel Ã¢â¬ Book1Ã¢â¬Â or a similar name. The palm You use commands to tell Microsoft Excel what to do. In Microsoft Excel 2007, you use the laurel wreath to issue commands. The thenar is rigid near the top of the Excel window, below the Quick Access toolbar. At the top of the Ribbon are several tabs; wrap uping a tab displays several related command aggroups. Within each group are related command buttons. You gaol buttons to issue commands or to access menus and duologue boxes. You may also find a negotiation box sling in the commode-right corner of a group.When you fathom the dialogue box arrangeer, a dialog box makes superfluous commands available. The stipulation bar appears at the very bottom of the Excel window and provides such information as the sum, average, minimum, and maximum value of chartered me ter. You dejection change what displays on the positioning bar by right- pervadeing on the realize bar and bringing the options you want from the Customize Status Bar menu. You shoot the breeze a menu item to contract it. You chat it again to deselect it. A period preindication next to an item means the item is selected. hightail it Around a Worksheet By using the cursor cites, you tin gesture around your worksheet.You can use the grim pointer anchor to fly the coop descending(prenominal) one carrell at a time. You can use the up arrow blusher to pop off upward one prison kioskphoneular phone at a time. You can use the Tab key to move across the page to the right, one electric prison cadre at a time. You can defy master(a) the excite key and then press the Tab key to move to the left over(p)(a)(a), one kioskphone at a time. You can use the right and left arrow keys to move right or left one cadre at a time. The foliate Up and knave Down keys m ove up and follow up one page at a time. If you limit down the Ctrl key and then press the billet key, you move to the beginning of the worksheet. process 1 fall Around the WorksheetThe Down Arrow Key hug the down arrow key several times. feeling that the cursor moves downward one carrell at a time. The Up Arrow Key conjure the up arrow key several times. step that the cursor moves upward one cell at a time. The Tab Key black market to cell A1. squeeze the Tab key several times. notation that the cursor moves to the right one cell at a time. The Shift+Tab Keys Hold down the Shift key and then press Tab. wrinkle that the cursor moves to the left one cell at a time. The Right and Left Arrow Keys excite the right arrow key several times. preeminence that the cursor moves to the right. excite the left arrow key several times. point out that the cursor moves to the left. Page Up and Page Down pep up the Page Down key. advert that the cursor moves down one page. barrac k the Page Up key. timber that the cursor moves up one page. The Ctrl-Home Key unravel the cursor to column J. go on in column J and move the cursor to row 20. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press the Home key. Excel moves to cell A1. Go To CellsÃÂ Quickly The adjacent are shortcuts for moving flyingly from one cell in a worksheet to a cell in a different part of the worksheet. EXERCISE 2 Go to — F5 The F5 function key is the Ã¢â¬Å"Go ToÃ¢â¬Â key.If you press the F5 key, you are prompted for the cell to which you appetency to go. enroll the cell address, and the cursor jumps to that cell. tender F5. The Go To dialog box opens. fictional characterÃÂ J3ÃÂ in the Reference field. pressing Enter. Excel moves to cell J3. Go to — Ctrl+G You can also use Ctrl+G to go to a specific cell. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press Ã¢â¬Å"gÃ¢â¬Â (Ctrl+g). The Go To dialog box opens. oddballÃÂ C4ÃÂ in the Reference field. promote Enter. Excel moves to cell C4. T he Name quoin You can also use the Name box to go to a specific cell. Just type the cell you want to go to in the Name box and then press Enter.If you wish to perform a function on a group of cells, you must first select those cells by highlighting them. The exercises that follow teach you how to select. EXERCISE 3 Select Cells To select cells A1 to E1: Go to cell A1. Press the F8 key. This anchors the cursor. Note that Ã¢â¬Å" blossom forth SelectionÃ¢â¬Â appears on the Status bar in the lower-left corner of the window. You are in the Extend mode. visit in cell E7. Excel highlights cells A1 to E7. Press Esc and twaddle anywhere on the worksheet to clear the highlighting. Alternative system: Select Cells by DraggingYou can also select an bailiwick by retentiveness down the left purloin button and dragging the mouse over the area. In addition, you can select noncontiguous areas of the worksheet by doing the pursual: Go to cell A1. Hold down the Ctrl key. You wont put out i t until step 9. Holding down the Ctrl key enables you to select noncontiguous areas of the worksheet. Press the left mouse button. While consorting down the left mouse button, use the mouse to move from cell A1 to C5. Continue to hold down the Ctrl key, but release the left mouse button. utilise the mouse, place the cursor in cell D7. Press the left mouse button.While holding down the left mouse button, move to cell F10. Release the left mouse button. Release the Ctrl key. Cells A1 to C5 and cells D7 to F10 are selected. Press Esc and riffle anywhere on the worksheet to bear away the highlighting. Enter selective information In this section, you will in authentic how to autograph data into your worksheet. First, place the cursor in the cell in which you want to start entering data. typewrite some data, and then press Enter. If you need to delete, press the backspacer key to delete one character at a time. EXERCISE 4 Enter info Place the cursor in cell A1. personaÃÂ toosh ie Jordan. Do not press Enter at this time.Delete Data The backspacer key erases one character at a time. Press the backspace key until Jordan is erased. Press Enter. The name Ã¢â¬Å"JohnÃ¢â¬Â appears in cell A1. Edit a Cell later on you enter data into a cell, you can edit the data by touch F2 while you are in the cell you wish to edit. EXERCISE 5 Edit a Cell Change Ã¢â¬Å"JohnÃ¢â¬Â to Ã¢â¬Å"Jones. Ã¢â¬Â live on to cell A1. Press F2. Use the Backspace key to delete the Ã¢â¬Å"nÃ¢â¬Â and the Ã¢â¬Å"h. Ã¢â¬Â tokenÃÂ nes. Press Enter. Lesson 2: Entering Excel looks and change Data Lesson 1 familiarized you with the Excel 2007 window, taught you how to move around the window, and how to enter data.A major strength of Excel is that you can perform mathematical calculations and format your data. In this lesson, you specify how to perform basic mathematical calculations and how to format text and numerical data. To start this lesson, open Excel. Set the Enter Key rush In Microsoft Excel, you can propound the direction the cursor moves when you press the Enter key. In the exercises that follow, the cursor must move down one cell when you press Enter. You can use the accentsing box in the Excel Options pane to set the cursor to move up, down, left, right, or not at all. bring or so the steps that follow to set the cursor to move down when you press the Enter key. ticktock the Microsoft Office button. A menu appears. Click Excel Options in the lower-right corner. The Excel Options pane appears. Click Advanced. If the check box next to After Pressing Enter Move Selection is not checked, hot dog the box to check it. If Down does not appear in the armorial bearing box, click the down arrow next to the Direction box and then click Down. Click OK. Excel sets the Enter direction to down. Perform Mathematical Calculations In Microsoft Excel, you can enter numbers pool and mathematical figures into cells.Whether you enter a number or a principle, you can reference the cell when you perform mathematical calculations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division. When entering a mathematical formula, precede the formula with an equal sign. Use the undermentioned to indicate the type of calculation you wish to perform: + Addition Ã¢â¬ Subtraction * generation / Division ^ exponential function In the following exercises, you practice some of the methods you can use to move around a worksheet and you unwrap how to perform mathematical calculations. Refer to Lesson 1 to learn more most moving around a worksheet. EXERCISE 1Addition grammatical caseÃÂ AddÃÂ in cell A1. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell. geekÃÂ 1ÃÂ in cell A2. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell. TypeÃÂ 1ÃÂ in cell A3. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell. TypeÃÂ =A2+A3ÃÂ in cell A4. Click the check mark on the Formula bar. Excel adds cell A1 to cell A2 and displays the result in cell A4. The formula displays on the Formula bar. Note:ÃÂ Clicking the check mark on the Formula bar is similar to pressing Enter. Excel records your entry but does not move to the next cell. Subtraction Press F5. The Go To dialog box appears. TypeÃÂ B1ÃÂ in the Reference field. Press Enter. Excel moves to cell B1.TypeÃÂ Subtract. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell. TypeÃÂ 6ÃÂ in cell B2. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell. TypeÃÂ 3ÃÂ in cell B3. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell. TypeÃÂ =B2-B3ÃÂ in cell B4. Click the check mark on the Formula bar. Excel subtracts cell B3 from cell B2 and the result displays in cell B4. The formula displays on the Formula bar. Multiplication Hold down the Ctrl key while you press Ã¢â¬Å"gÃ¢â¬Â (Ctrl+g). The Go To dialog box appears. TypeÃÂ C1ÃÂ in the Reference field. Press Enter. Excel moves to cell C1 TypeÃÂ Multiply. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell. TypeÃÂ 2ÃÂ in cell C2. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.TypeÃÂ 3ÃÂ in cell C3. Press Enter. Excel move s down one cell. TypeÃÂ =C2*C3ÃÂ in cell C4. Click the check mark on the Formula bar. Excel multiplies C1 by cell C2 and displays the result in cell C3. The formula displays on the Formula bar. Division Press F5. TypeÃÂ D1ÃÂ in the Reference field. Press Enter. Excel moves to cell D1. TypeÃÂ Divide. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell. TypeÃÂ 6ÃÂ in cell D2. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell. TypeÃÂ 3ÃÂ in cell D3. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell. TypeÃÂ =D2/D3ÃÂ in cell D4. Click the check mark on the Formula bar. Excel divides cell D2 by cell D3 and displays the result in cell D4.The formula displays on the Formula bar. When creating formulas, you can reference cells and include numbers. All of the following formulas are valid: =A2/B2 =A1+12-B3 =A2*B2+12 =24+53 AutoSum You can use the AutoSum buttonÃÂ ÃÂ on the Home tab to automatically add a column or row of numbers. When you press the AutoSum buttonÃÂ , Excel selects the numbers it thinks you want to add. If you then click the check mark on the Formula bar or press the Enter key, Excel adds the numbers. If Excels guess as to which numbers you want to add is wrong, you can select the cells you want. EXERCISE 2 AutoSum The following illustrates AutoSum:Go to cell F1. TypeÃÂ 3. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell. TypeÃÂ 3. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell. TypeÃÂ 3. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell to cell F4. Choose the Home tab. Click the AutoSum buttonÃÂ ÃÂ in the Editing group. Excel selects cells F1 through F3 and enters a formula in cell F4. Press Enter. Excel adds cells F1 through F3 and displays the result in cell F4. Perform Automatic Calculations By default, Microsoft Excel recalculates the worksheet as you change cell entries. This makes it slack for you to correct mistakes and analyze a variety of scenarios. EXERCISE 3 Automatic CalculationMake the changes draw below and note how Microsoft Excel automatically recalculates. Move to cell A2. TypeÃ Â 2. Press the right arrow key. Excel changes the result in cell A4. Excel adds cell A2 to cell A3 and the new result appears in cell A4. Move to cell B2. TypeÃÂ 8. Press the right arrow key. Excel subtracts cell B3 from cell B3 and the new result appears in cell B4. Move to cell C2. TypeÃÂ 4. Press the right arrow key. Excel multiplies cell C2 by cell C3 and the new result appears in cell C4. Move to cell D2. TypeÃÂ 12. Press the Enter key. Excel divides cell D2 by cell D3 and the new result appears in cell D4.Align Cell Entries When you type text into a cell, by default your entry aligns with the left stead of the cell. When you type numbers into a cell, by default your entry aligns with the right side of the cell. You can change the cell alignment. You can plaza, left-align, or right-align any cell entry. Look at cells A1 to D1. Note that they are aline with the left side of the cell. Microsoft Excel 2007 Ã¢â¬ It is a political schedule used to create, format, and comput e numbers. It displays datain row-and-column format. MS Excel makes it easy to compute numbers andallows different ways to format data including charts and reports. It is a very powerful electronic spreadsheet that lets the exploiter enter and usenumerical data with formulas and built-in functions. It consists of 16worksheets, 65536 rows, and 256 columns. A Workbook is a file in MS Excel that holds worksheets. A Worksheet is composed of columns and rows that are similar to an bill ledger. Itdisplays characters like letters, and numbers, and can do computations. move and Uses of the MS Excel Environment 1. Toolbars Ã¢â¬ display commands that are commonly used for easy access 2. Name Box Ã¢â¬ displays the address of the active cell 3. Formula bar displays the contents and formula entered on the active cell 4. Status bar Ã¢â¬ displays the information about a selected command 5. Select all outlet Ã¢â¬ selects every cell in a worksheet 6. Sheet Tabs Ã¢â¬ let you display workshee ts in the open workbook 7. Row headers Ã¢â¬ a number used to draw a row 8. Column headers Ã¢â¬ a letter used to identify a column 9. Active cell Ã¢â¬ the cell that has a thick b ordination that will hold any data that you type orÃÂ entered 10. history bars Ã¢â¬ includes upright piano and horizontal roll bar and four arrow used to move thescreen display horizontally or vertically 11. Title bar displays the program and the name of the workbook that you are currentlyusing 12. Menu bar (7 Tabs) Ã¢â¬ lists the names of the menus or tabs in Excel 13. decrease button Ã¢â¬ minimizes the window to a button on the task bar 14. Maximize/Restore button Ã¢â¬ switch between maximizing a window and restoring awindow to its previous size 15. Close button Ã¢â¬ closes the window Parts of the Microsoft Office Excel 2007 Environment Parts of the PowerPoint screen: * Title barÃÂ Ã¢â¬ displays the document name * Menu barÃÂ Ã¢â¬ click on a menu option to see a list of commands * Standar d toolbarÃÂ Ã¢â¬ often used menu options Formatting toolbarÃÂ Ã¢â¬ displays formatting commands * PlaceholderÃÂ Ã¢â¬ click or double-click to add an element to a slide * Outline imbibe buttonÃÂ Ã¢â¬ displays document in abstract form * lantern slide view buttonÃÂ Ã¢â¬ displays slides one at a time * splay Sorter view buttonÃÂ Ã¢â¬ displays all slides in a single screen * playground slide show buttonÃÂ Ã¢â¬ displays slide show * Drawing toolbarÃÂ Ã¢â¬ displays drawing tools * Status barÃÂ Ã¢â¬ shows the current page number and position of the insertion point in the document * Office AssistantÃÂ Ã¢â¬ quick help when you need it This lesson introduces you toÃÂ PowerPoint 2007.You use the PowerPoint window to interact with the data processor packet program, place text, graphics, and other features on a slide. When you launch PowerPoint 2007, the PowerPoint 2007 Window appears and your screen looks like the one shown below. Your PowerPoint 2007 Window scree n will probably not look exactly like the screen shown above. In PowerPoint 2007, how a window displays depends on the size of the window, the size of your monitor, and the resolution to which your monitor is set. Screen Resolution determines how much information your information processing system monitor can display.If you use a low resolution, less information fits on your screen, but the size of your text and images are larger. If you use a high resolution, more information fits on your screen, but the size of the text and images are smaller. The Microsoft Office Button In the upper-left corner of the PowerPoint 2007 window is the Microsoft Office button. Its similar to the old File Menu. When you click the button, a menu appears. You can use the menu to create a new file, open an existing file, save a file, print, and perform many other tasks. The Quick Access ToolbarNext to the Microsoft Office button in the upper left corner is the Quick Access toolbar outlined in red in the image above. The Quick Access toolbar provides you with access to commands that are frequently used. By default, Save, Undo, and Redo appear on the Quick Access toolbar. You use Save to save your file, Undo to rollback an action you have taken, and Redo to reapply an action you have rolled back. You can customize this toolbar by right clicking on it or click the small black down arrow to the right. The Title Bar The Title bar is located at the top in the pith of the PowerPoint 2007 window.The Title bar displays the name of the presentation on which you are currently working. By default, PowerPoint names presentations sequentially, offset with Presentation1. When you save your file, you can change the name of your presentation. The Ribbon TheÃÂ RibbonÃÂ holds all of the commands and features of each of the tabs in the Ribbon. The Tabs are located across the top of the ribbon under the Title Bar. These contextual tabs will appear when you have something highlighted that calls for it. For example, if you have a picture highlighted on your slide, a Picture Tools tab will appear.Similar tools are located in necessitate Groups across the ribbon. Each Command Group includes Command Buttons to perform various actions on that group of tools. Getting PowerPoint to Do What You Want You use commands to tell PowerPoint what to do. In PowerPoint 2007, the commands you use are located on the the Ribbon. The Ribbon is located near the top of the PowerPoint 2007 window, below the Quick Access toolbar. At the top of the Ribbon are several tabs and clicking a tab displays several related command groups. Within each group are related command buttons. You click buttons to issue commands or to access menus and dialog boxes.You may also find a dialog box launcher in the bottom-right corner of a group. When you click the dialog box launcher, a dialog box makes additional commands available. ClipboardÃÂ Ã¢â¬ Contains the cut, copy, paste commands. The Format Painter tool is loc ated here as are the library paste Special, Paste as Hyperlink, and Duplicate commands. curvesÃÂ Ã¢â¬ All the commonly used commands for creating new slides FontÃÂ Ã¢â¬ Includes the most commonly used commands for formatting font ParagraphÃÂ Ã¢â¬ Includes all of the paragraph formatting commands, vertical and horizontal alignments, text direction, bullets, numbering, indenting, spacing before and after, columns, etc.It also includes the dialog box for tabs. DrawingÃÂ Ã¢â¬ Allow you to add shapes and draw on your slides. This is Format Shape Dialog Box. Rulers Rulers are vertical and horizontal guides. You use them to determine where you want to place an object. If the rulers do not display in your PowerPoint 2007 window: 1. Click the deliberate tab. 2. Click Ruler in the Show/Hide group. The rulers appear. Slides, Placeholders, and Notes The Slide Window is illogical up into several areas including the Slide Pane and the Notes Section. The Slide Pane appears in the cente r of the window while the Notes Section is at the bottom. there are also Placeholders on each slide depending on the slide layout that has been selected. These layouts may include placeholders for a slide title, subtitle, text, images, video, charts, graphs, etc. The placeholders hold the objects on your slides. Slides appear in the center of the window. You create your presentation by adding content to the slides. You can use the notes area to creates notes to yourself. You can refer to these notes as you give your presentation. For narrated presentations, this area is frequently used to write the script for the audio. Main Window Components, Status Bar, Tabs, see to it Buttons, and MoreThe Status bar generally appears at the bottom of the window. The Status bar displays the number of the slide that is currently displayed, the score number of slides, and the name of the design template in use or the name of the background. The Outline tab displays the text contained in your prese ntation in an outline format. The Slides tab displays a thumbnail view of all your slides. You click the thumbnail to view the slide in the Slide pane. The View buttons appear near the bottom of the screen. You use the View buttons to change between Normal view, Slider Sorter view, and the Slide Show view. Normal ViewNormal view splits your screen into three major sections: the Outline and Slides tabs, the Slide pane, and the Notes area. The Outline and Slides tabs are on the left side of your window. They enable you to channelise between two different ways of aftermath your slides. The Slides tab shows thumbnails of your slides. The Outline tab shows the text on your slides. The Slide pane is located in the center of your window. The Slide pane shows a large view of the slide on which you are currently working. The Notes area appears below the Slide pane. You can type notes to yourself on the Notes area. Slide Sorter ViewSlide Sorter view shows thumbnails of all your slides. In S lide Sorter view, you can easily add, delete, or change their order of your slides. Slide Show View Use the Slide Show view when you want to view your slides, as they will look in your final presentation. When in Slide Show view: Esc| Returns you to the view you were using previously. | Left-clicking| Moves you to the next slide or animation effect. When you reach the last slide, you automatically return to your previous view. | Right-clicking| Opens a pop-up menu. You can use this menu to navigate the slides, add speaker notes, select a pointer, and mark your presentation. | billow In & sailplane Out Zoom controls allows you to zoom in and zoom out on the window. Zooming in makes the window larger so you focus in on an object. Zooming out makes the window smaller so you can see the entire window. You can click and drag the vertical and horizontal splitter bars to change the size of your panes. What is a reckoner computing machine virus? A computer virus is a small packag e program that spreads from one computer to another and interferes with computer operation. A computer virus might corrupt or delete data on a computer, use an email program to spread the virus to other computers, or even delete everything on the hard disk.Computer viruses are frequently spread by attachments in email messages or by instant messaging messages. Therefore, you must neer open an email attachment unless you know who sent the message or you are expecting the email attachment. Viruses can be disguised as attachments of funny images, greeting cards, or audio and video files. Computer viruses also spread through transfers on the Internet. They can be hidden in pirated packet or in other files or programs that you might download. Symptoms of a computer virus For information about the symptoms of a computer virus, go to theÃÂ Microsoft PC warranterÃÂ website. What is a move?A worm is computer code that spreads without user interaction. Most worms begin as email attach ments that sully a computer when theyre opened. The worm scans the infect computer for files, such as address books or acting(prenominal) webpages, that contain email addresses. The worm uses the addresses to send infected email messages, and frequently mimics (or spoofs) the Ã¢â¬Å"FromÃ¢â¬Â addresses in later email messages so that those infected messages seem to be from person you know. Worms then spread automatically through email messages, networks, or operating system vulnerabilities, frequently whelm those systems before the cause is known.Worms arent always destructive to computers, but they usually cause computer and network process and stability problems. What is a trojan horse? A trojan horse is a cattish software program that hides internal other programs. It enters a computer hidden inside a real program, such as a screen saver. Then it puts code into the operating system that enables a hacker to access the infected computer. fifth column horses do not usu ally spread by themselves. They are spread by viruses, worms, or downloaded software. What is spyware? Spyware can launch on your computer without your knowledge.These programs can change your computerÃ¢â¬â¢s form or collect advertising data and own(prenominal) information. Spyware can track Internet search habits and can also redirect your web browser to a different website than you intend to go to. What is scalawag hostage software? A varlet certification software program tries to make you think that your computer is infected by a virus and usually prompts you to download or get a product that secludes the virus. The names of these products frequently contain words like Antivirus, Shield, earnest, Protection, or Fixer. This makes them sound legitimate.They frequently run right after you download them, or the next time that your computer starts. Rogue protective cover software can prevent applications, such as Internet adventurer, from opening. Rogue security mea ve ritables system software might also display legitimate and important Windows files as infections. Typical error messages or pop-up messages might contain the following phrases: Warning! Your computer is infected! This computer is infected by spyware and adware. NoteÃÂ If you receive a message in a popup dialog box that resembles this warning, pressÃÂ ALT + F4ÃÂ on your keyboard to close the dialog box.Do not click anything inside the dialog box. If a warning, such as the one here, keeps appearing when you try to close the dialog box, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a good indication that the message is spiteful. ar you sure you want to navigate from this page? Your computer is infected! They can cause data lose and file corruption and need to be treat as soon as possible. Press spark to prevent it. Return to System security measure and download it to secure your PC. Press OK to Continue or Cancel to stay on the current page. If you see this bod of message, then dont download or buy the softwa re.What is malware? Malware is a term that is used for malicious software that is designed to do damage or unwished-for actions to a computer system. Examples of malware include the following: Viruses Worms Trojan horses Spyware Rogue security software How to remove malware such as a virus, spyware, or rapscallion security software Removing a computer virus or spyware can be difficult without the help of malicious software removal tools. Some computer viruses and other unwanted software reinstall themselves after the viruses and spyware are detected and removed.Fortunately, by updating the computer and by using malicious software removal tools, you can help permanently remove unwanted software. For more information about how to remove a computer virus and spyware, see the following article in the Microsoft companionship lascivious: 2671662 Ã¢â¬ Microsoft resources and guidance for removal of malware and viruses NoteÃÂ If you cannot access the Internet on your computer, use anot her computer to help you follow the steps in the Ã¢â¬Å"How to reset your Internet Explorer deputy settingsÃ¢â¬Â section on the computer that may be infected.To remove a computer virus and other malicious software, follow these steps in order. Install the in style(p) updates from Microsoft update NoteÃÂ A computer virus may prevent you from accessing the Microsoft Update website to install the current updates. We recommend that you set the Automatic Updates serviceÃÂ to run automatically so that a computer is not missing any important updates. For more information, see the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge stupid:ÃÂ 306525 Ã¢â¬ How to set up and use Automatic Updates in Windows Windows VistaÃÂ andÃÂ Windows 7 ClickÃÂ parachute, and then typeÃÂ Windows UpdateÃÂ in the search box.In the results area, clickÃÂ Windows Update. ClickÃÂ operate for Updates. Follow the instructions to download and install the modish Windows Updates. Windows XP ClickÃÂ Start , and then clickÃÂ Run. TypeÃÂ sysdm. cpl, and then press Enter. Click theÃÂ Automatic UpdatesÃÂ tab, and then click theÃÂ Automatic (recommended)ÃÂ option. ClickÃÂ OK. Use the free Microsoft recourse electronic scanner Microsoft offers a free online tool that scans and helps remove potential threats from your computer. To perform the scan, go to theÃÂ Microsoft goodty digital scannerÃÂ website. Use the Windows Malicious software system remotion ToolFor more information about the Microsoft Malicious Software Removal Tool, see the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base: 890830 Ã¢â¬ The Microsoft Windows Malicious Software Removal Tool helps remove specific, prevalent malicious software from computers that are running Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, or Windows XP manually remove the rogue security software If the rogue security software canÃ¢â¬â¢t be detected or removed by using Microsoft Safety Scanner or the Windows Mali cious Software Removal Tool, try the following steps: Note the name of the rogue security software.For this example, well call itÃÂ XP protective covering Agent 2010. Restart your computer. When you see the computers manufacturers logo, repeatedly press theÃÂ F8ÃÂ key. When you are prompted, use the arrow keys to highlightÃÂ Safe Mode with Networking, and then press Enter. ClickÃÂ StartÃÂ and check whether the rogue security software appears on theÃÂ StartÃÂ menu. If its not listed there, clickAll ProgramsÃÂ and scroll to find the rogue security softwares name. Right-click the name of the rogue security software program, and then clickÃÂ Properties. Click theÃÂ ShortcutÃÂ tab.In theÃÂ PropertiesÃÂ dialog box, check the path of the rogue security software program that is listed inÃÂ Target. For example,ÃÂ C:Program FilesXP protective covering Agent 2010. NoteÃÂ The folder name frequently is a random number. ClickÃÂ Open File Location. In theÃÂ Program FilesÃÂ wi ndow, clickÃÂ Program FilesÃÂ in the address bar. Scroll until you find the rogue security software program folder. For example,ÃÂ XP tribute Agent 2010. Right-click the folder, and then clickÃÂ Delete. Restart your computer. Go to theÃÂ Microsoft Safety ScannerÃÂ website. Follow the steps to run the scan and to help remove the rogue security software.If you suspect that your computer is infected with rogue security software that was not detected by using Microsoft security solutions, you can submit samples by using theÃÂ Microsoft Malware Protection cracker submission form. For more information about rogue security software, go to theÃÂ Watch out for dissimulator virus alertsÃÂ website. Install and run Microsoft Security Essentials Microsoft offers a free malicious removal program called Microsoft Security Essentials that helps protect your computer from becoming infected. To install Microsoft Security Essentials, follow these steps: Go to theÃÂ Microsoft Security Esse ntialsÃÂ website.ClickÃÂ escaped Download. ClickÃÂ Run, and then follow the instructions to install Microsoft Security Essentials. After installation, restart your computer. ClickÃÂ Start, clickÃÂ All Programs, and then clickÃÂ Microsoft Security Essentials. On theÃÂ HomeÃÂ tab, select theÃÂ FullÃÂ scan option, and then clickÃÂ Scan now. Install Windows protector Offline Windows guardian Offline is a malware tool that helps remove difficult to blow over viruses that start before Windows starts. To use Windows Defender Offline, follow these steps: On an uninfected computer, go to theÃÂ What is Windows Defender OfflineÃÂ website.ClickÃÂ Download the 32 bit versionÃÂ orÃÂ Download the 64 bit version, depending on which operating system that you are running. If youre unsure of which operating system that you are running, go to theÃÂ Is my PC running the 32-bit or 64-bit version of WindowsÃÂ website. When you are prompted, clickÃÂ Save As, and then save the file to a DVD, CD, or USB bald-faced set about. On the infected computer, insert the DVD, CD, or USB brassy drive, and then restart the computer. When you are prompted, press a key to select an option to use to start your computer, such as F12, F5, or F8, depending on the kind of computer that you are using.Use the arrow key to scroll to the drive where you installed Windows Defender Offline file. Windows Defender Offline starts and immediately scans for malware. For more information about how to remove a computer virus, go to theÃÂ How do I remove a computer virusÃÂ website. How to protect your computer against malware There are actions that you can take to help protect your computer against malware. enchantment on the firewall For information about how to turn on your firewall in Windows 7, go to theÃÂ crack Windows 7 Firewall on or offwebsite.For information about how to turn on your firewall in Windows Vista, go to theÃÂ Turn Windows Vista Firewall on or offÃÂ website. For inf ormation about how to turn on your firewall in Windows XP, see the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base: 283673 Ã¢â¬ How can I turn on or turn off the firewall in Windows XP Service channel 2 or later versions? Keep your computer up to date For more information about how to set Automatic Updates in Windows, see the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base: 306525 Ã¢â¬ How to configure and use Automatic Updates in Windows Install Microsoft Security Essentials and keep it up to dateFor more information about how to install and use Microsoft Security Essentials, go to theÃÂ Microsoft Security Essentialswebsite. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t be tricked into downloading malware Here are some tips that can help protect you from downloading software that you dont want: Only download programs from websites that you trust. If youre not sure whether to trust a program that you want to download, enter the name of the program into your favorite search locomotive engine to see whether anyone else has reported that it contains spyware. Read all security warnings, license agreements, and privacy statements that are associated with any software that you download.Never click Ã¢â¬Å"AgreeÃ¢â¬Â or Ã¢â¬Å"OKÃ¢â¬Â to close a window that you suspect might be spyware. Instead, click the red Ã¢â¬Å"xÃ¢â¬Â in the corner of the window or pressÃÂ Alt + F4ÃÂ on your keyboard to close a window. Be wary of common Ã¢â¬Å"freeÃ¢â¬Â music and movie file-sharing programs, and make sure that you understand all the software packaged with those programs. Use a standard user account sooner of an decision maker account. For more information, go to theÃÂ Why use a standard account instead of an administrator accountÃÂ website. For more information about how to protect a computer against viruses, go to theÃÂ How to boost your malware abnegation and protect your PCÃÂ website.How to reset your Internet Explorer procurator settings Malicious software might change Internet Ex plorer proxy settings, and these changes can prevent you from accessing Windows Update or any Microsoft Security sites. To have us change your Internet Explorer proxy settings for you, follow these steps: On an uninfected computer, see the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge base: 2289942 Ã¢â¬ How to reset your Internet Explorer proxy settings Go to theÃÂ Fix it for meÃÂ section. Click theÃÂ Fix itÃÂ button. Save the file to a flash drive or a CD when you are prompted. Insert the flash drive or CD in the infected computer.Start Windows, clickÃÂ Start, and then clickÃÂ Run. ClickÃÂ Browse. Select the spatial relation of the flash drive or CD. Double-click the file that you saved, and then clickÃÂ Open. To change your Internet Explorer proxy settings yourself, follow these steps: ClickÃÂ Start, and then clickÃÂ Run. In theÃÂ RunÃÂ box, copy and paste the following: reg add Ã¢â¬Å"HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionInternet SettingsÃ¢â¬Â /v ProxyEnable / t REG_DWORD /d 0 /f ClickÃÂ OK. ClickÃÂ Start, and then clickÃÂ Run. In theÃÂ RunÃÂ box, copy and paste the following: reg delete Ã¢â¬Å"HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionInternet SettingsÃ¢â¬Â /v ProxyServer /f ClickÃÂ OK.\r\n'